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Research Output 1997 2019

2019

86-GBaud subcarrier multiplexed 16QAM signal generation using an electrical 90 degree hybrid and IQ mixers

Zhang, T., Sánchez, C., Skvortcov, P., Ferreira, F., Sygletos, S., Phillips, I. D., Forysiak, W. & Ellis, A. D., 12 Apr 2019, In : Optics Express. 27, 8, p. 11819-11829 11 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Open Access
File
diplexers
quadrature amplitude modulation
MIMO (control systems)
taps
crosstalk

Linear and Nonlinear Noise Characterisation of Dual Stage Broadband Discrete Raman Amplifiers

Iqbal, M. A., Al-Khateeb, M. A. Z., Krzczanowicz, L., Phillips, I. D., Harper, P. & Forysiak, W., 15 Jul 2019, In : Journal of Lightwave Technology. 37, 14, p. 3679-3688 10 p., 8723646.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Open Access
File
amplifiers
broadband
fibers
signal to noise ratios
quadrature phase shift keying

Performance Estimation of Discrete Raman Amplification within Broadband Optical Networks

Krzczanowicz, L., Al-khateeb, M. A. Z., Iqbal, M. A., Phillips, I., Harper, P. & Forysiak, W., 22 Apr 2019, 2019 Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition, OFC 2019 - Proceedings. Optical Society of America, 8696796

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Broadband networks
Erbium doped fiber amplifiers
Fiber optic networks
penalties
Amplification

Receiver DSP highly tolerant to transmitter IQ impairments

Skvortcov, P., Sanchez-costa, C., Phillips, I. & Forysiak, W., 7 Mar 2019, Optical Fiber Communication Conference 2019. Optical Society of America, Th1D.2

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Transmitters

Recent Advances in Discrete Raman Amplifiers and their Applications to Wideband Optical Networks

Krzczanowicz, L., Iqbal, M. A., Al-khateeb, M. A. Z., Phillips, I. D., Harper, P. & Forysiak, W., 19 Sep 2019, 21st International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks, ICTON 2019. IEEE, Vol. 2019-July. 8840021. (2019 21st International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON)).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Broadband networks
Fiber optic networks
Erbium doped fiber amplifiers
Fibers
2018

200-Gb/s Polarization Multiplexed Doubly Differential QPSK Signal Transmission over 80-km SSMF Using Tandem SSB without Optical Amplification

Zhang, T., Sánchez, C., Phillips, I. D., Sygletos, S. & Ellis, A. D., 26 Apr 2018, 2017 European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC). IEEE

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Open Access
File
quadrature phase shift keying
signal transmission
polarization
receivers
recovery

224-Gb/s Carrier-recovery-free Doubly Differential 2ASK-8PSK for Short-reach Optical Networks

Zhang, T., Sanchez, C., Al-khateeb, M., Ali, A., Tan, M., Skvortcov, P., Phillips, I., Sygletos, S. & Ellis, A., 16 Jul 2018, In : IEEE Photonics Technology Letters.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Open Access
File
decoding
Fiber optic networks
Decoding
recovery
Recovery

224Gb/s Single Carrier Doubly Differential 2ASK-8PSK System without Carrier Recovery

Zhang, T., Sanchez, C., Al-khateeb, M., Phillips, I. & Ellis, A., 13 May 2018, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics: OSA Technical Digest (online). Optical Society of America, SM2C.6

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Open Access
File
constellations
wireless communication
penalties
recovery
polarization
Open Access
File
quadrature phase shift keying
signal transmission
receivers
amplifiers
penalties

Characterisation of Linear and Nonlinear Noise of a Dual-Stage Broadband Discrete Raman Amplifier

Iqbal, M. A., Krzczanowicz, L., Al-Khateeb, M., Phillips, I. D., Tan, M., Harper, P. & Forysiak, W., 15 Nov 2018, 2018 European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC). IEEE

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Open Access
File
amplifiers
broadband
configurations
fibers

Joint Tx and Rx Skew Calibration in Coherent Transceivers Based on Rx-Side DSP

Skvortcov, P., Sánchez, C., Phillips, I. D. & Forysiak, W., 8 Nov 2018, 2018 IEEE Photonics Conference (IPC). IEEE, (2018 IEEE Photonics Conference (IPC)).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Transceivers
Transmitters
Calibration
Computer simulation

Low penalty, dual stage, broadband discrete Raman amplifier for high capacity WDM metro networks

Krzczanowicz, L., Iqbal, M. A., Phillips, I., Tan, M., Skvortcov, P., Harper, P. & Forysiak, W., 15 Mar 2018, Optical Fiber Communication Conference 2018. Optical Society of America, p. W3D.3

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Open Access
File
Quadrature phase shift keying
Wavelength division multiplexing
Amplification
Fibers

Low transmission penalty dual-stage broadband discrete Raman amplifier

Krzczanowicz, L., Iqbal, M. A., Phillips, I. D., Tan, M., Skvortcov, P., Harper, P. & Forysiak, W., 8 Mar 2018, In : Optics Express. 26, 6, p. 7091-7097

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Open Access
File
penalties
amplifiers
broadband
quadrature phase shift keying
nonlinearity
Open Access
File
penalties
amplifiers
fibers
Fibers
quadrature phase shift keying

Transmitter IQ skew calibration in coherent transceivers based on DSP

Skvortcov, P., Sanchez-costa, C., Phillips, I. & Forysiak, W., 5 Jul 2018, Signal Processing in Photonic Communications 2018. Optical Society of America, p. SpW1G.6

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

transmitter receivers
quadratures
transmitters
simulation
2017

Experimental Analysis of Nonlinear Impairments in Fibre Optic Transmission Systems up to 7.3 THz

Saavedra Mondaca, G., Tan, M., Elson, D. J., Galdino, L., Semrau, D., Iqbal, M. A., Phillips, I. D., Harper, P., MacSuibhne, N., Ellis, A. D., Lavery, D., Thomsen, B. C., Killey, R. I. & Bayvel, P., 5 Oct 2017, In : Journal of Lightwave Technology. 35, 21

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Open Access
File
impairment
fiber optics
bandwidth
interference
quadrature amplitude modulation

Experimental investigation of nonlinear signal distortions in ultra-wideband transmission systems

Saavedra, G., Tan, M., Elson, D. J., Galdino, L., Semrau, D., Iqbal, M. A., Phillips, I., Harper, P., MacSuibhne, N., Ellis, A., Lavery, D., Thomsen, B. C., Killey, R. & Bayvel, P., 23 Mar 2017, Optical Fiber Communication Conference 2017. Optical Society of America

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

signal distortion
Signal distortion
Nonlinear distortion
Ultra-wideband (UWB)
broadband

High gain, flattened, discrete raman fiber amplifier and its transmission performance

El-Taher, A., Tan, M., Iqbal, M. A., Krzczanowicz, L., Phillips, I. D., Forysiak, W. & Harper, P., 29 Jun 2017, The European Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, CLEO_Europe 2017. Optical Society of America, Vol. Part F82-CLEO_Europe 2017.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Fiber amplifiers
Pumps
Fibers
Erbium doped fiber amplifiers
Erbium

Hybrid discrete Raman/EDFA design for broadband optical amplification in metro WDM systems

Krzczanowicz, L., Phillips, I., Iqbal, M. A., Tan, M., Harper, P. & Forysiak, W., 4 Sep 2017, ICTON 2017 - 19th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks. IEEE, p. 1-4 4 p. 8025083

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Open Access
File
Erbium doped fiber amplifiers
Wavelength division multiplexing
Amplification
Erbium
Fibers

Raman fibre laser based amplification in long-haul/unrepeatered coherent transmission systems

Tan, M., Rosa, P., Iqbal, M. A., Le, S. T., Phillips, I. D., Turitsyn, S. K. & Harper, P., 4 Sep 2017, ICTON 2017 - 19th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks. IEEE, 8025050

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Open Access
File
Fiber lasers
Amplification
Distributed feedback lasers
Fiber Bragg gratings
Quadrature phase shift keying

RIN-penalty mitigation and transmission performance improvement using forward propagated broadband first order Raman pump

Tan, M., Iqbal, M. A., Krzczanowicz, L., Phillips, I. D., El-Taher, A., Forysiak, W. & Harper, P., 17 Nov 2017, 2017 Opto-Electronics and Communications Conference, OECC 2017 and Photonics Global Conference, PGC 2017. IEEE, Vol. 2017-November. p. 1-3 3 p. (2017 Opto-Electronics and Communications Conference (OECC) and Photonics Global Conference (PGC)).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Open Access
File
Pumps
Quadrature phase shift keying
Wavelength division multiplexing
Amplification
2016

4 Tb/s transmission reach enhancement using 10 × 400 Gb/s super-channels and polarization insensitive dual band optical phase conjugation

Ellis, A. D., Tan, M., Iqbal, M. A., Al-Khateeb, M. A. Z., Gordienko, V., Saavedra Mondaca, G., Fabbri, S., Stephens, M. F. C., McCarthy, M. E., Perentos, A., Phillips, I. D., Lavery, D., Liga, G., Maher, R., Harper, P., Doran, N., Turitsyn, S. K., Sygletos, S. & Bayvel, P., 15 Apr 2016, In : Journal of Lightwave Technology. 34, 8, p. 1717-1723 7 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Open Access
File
phase conjugation
augmentation
polarization
asymmetry

Achievable information rate of nonlinear inverse synthesis based 16QAM OFDM transmission

Le, S. T., Phillips, I. D., Prilepsky, J. E., Kamalian Kopae, M., Ellis, A. D., Harper, P. & Turitsyn, S. K., 8 Dec 2016, ECOC 2016; 42nd European Conference on Optical Communication. IEEE, p. 1208-1210 3 p.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing

Demonstration of an ultra-flat Raman-enhanced fibre optical parametric amplifier (FOPA) with >110nm gain-bandwidth

Gordienko, V., Stephens, M. F., Takasaka, S., El-Taher, A. E., Phillips, I. D., Forysiak, W., Sugizaki, R. & Doran, N. J., 5 Dec 2016, ECOC 2016 Düsseldorf : 42nd European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communications. Berlin (DE): VDE, p. 1019-1021 3 p.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Optical parametric amplifiers
Quadrature phase shift keying
Demonstrations
Bandwidth
Fibers
Open Access
File
synthesis
combat
impairment
bit error rate
telecommunication

Equalization-enhanced phase noise in nonlinear inverse synthesis transmissions

Le, S. T., Phillips, I. D., Prilepsky, J. E., Kamalian Kopae, M., Ellis, A. D., Harper, P. & Turitsyn, S. K., 5 Dec 2016, ECOC 2016; 42nd European Conference on Optical Communication. IEEE, p. 370-372 3 p.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Quadrature phase shift keying
Phase noise
Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing
Modulation

First experimental demonstration of nonlinear inverse synthesis transmission over transoceanic distances

Le, S. T., Phillips, I. D., Prilepsky, J. E., Harper, P., Doran, N. J., Ellis, A. D. & Turitsyn, S. K., 22 Mar 2016, Optical Fiber Communication Conference 2016. Optical Society of America, 3 p. Tu2A.1. (OSA Technical Digest).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Open Access
File
Demonstrations
synthesis
products

Impact of front-FBG reflectivity in Raman fiber laser based amplification

Rizzelli, G., Iqbal, M. A., Rosa, P., Tan, M., Krzczanowicz, L., Phillips, I., Forysiak, W., Ania-Castañón, J. D. & Harper, P., 16 Dec 2016, CLEO: Science and Innovations 2016. Optical Society of America, paper SF1F.6

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Raman lasers
Fiber lasers
fiber lasers
Amplification
reflectance

Impact of input FBG reflectivity and forward pump power on RIN transfer in ultralong Raman laser amplifiers

Rizzelli, G., Iqbal, M. A., Gallazzi, F., Rosa, P., Tan, M., Ania-Castañón, J. D., Krzczanowicz, L., Corredera, P., Phillips, I., Forysiak, W. & Harper, P., 12 Dec 2016, In : Optics Express. 24, 25, p. 29170-29175 6 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Open Access
File
Raman lasers
amplifiers
pumps
reflectance
quadrature phase shift keying

QPSK 3R regenerator using a phase sensitive amplifier

Perentos, A., Fabbri, S., Sorokina, M., Phillips, I. D., Turitsyn, S. K., Ellis, A. D. & Sygletos, S., 25 Jul 2016, In : Optics Express. 24, 15, p. 16649-16658 10 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Open Access
File
regenerators
quadrature phase shift keying
regeneration
quadratures
boxes

Transmission performance improvement using random DFB laser based Raman amplification and bidirectional second-order pumping

Tan, M., Rosa, P., Le, S. T., Iqbal, M. A., Phillips, I. D. & Harper, P., 8 Feb 2016, In : Optics Express. 24, 3, p. 2215-2221 7 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Open Access
File
distributed feedback lasers
pumping
quadrature phase shift keying
phase conjugation
noise intensity
2015

Enhanced superchannel transmission using phase conjugation

Ellis, A. D., Phillips, I. D., Tan, M., Stephens, M. F. C., McCarthy, M. E., Al Kahteeb, M. A. Z., Iqbal, M. A., Perentos, A., Fabbri, S., Gordienko, V., Lavery, D., Liga, G., Saavedra, M. G., Maher, R., Sygletos, S., Harper, P., Doran, N. J., Bayvel, P. & Turitsyn, S. K., 2015, European Conference on Optical Communication, ECOC. IEEE, 3 p.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Open Access
File
Optical phase conjugation
Polarization

Evaluation of 100G DP-QPSK long-haul transmission performance using second order co-pumped Raman laser based amplification

Tan, M., Rosa, P., Le, T. S., Phillips, I. D. & Harper, P., 14 Aug 2015, In : Optics Express. 23, 17, p. 22181-22189 9 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Open Access
File
quadrature phase shift keying
Raman lasers
pumping
evaluation
penalties

Extended reach of 116 Gb/s DP-QPSK transmission using random DFB fiber laser based Raman amplification and bidirectional second-order pumping

Tan, M., Rosa, P., Phillips, I. & Harper, P., 2015, Optical Fiber Communication Conference 2015. Optical Society of America, paper W4E.1. (OSA technical digest).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Pumping (laser)
quadrature phase shift keying
Distributed feedback lasers
Quadrature phase shift keying
Fiber lasers

Fibre optical parametric amplifier incorporating a Raman-pump for reduced four-wave mixing crosstalk

Stephens, M. F., Phillips, I. D., Harper, P. & Doran, N. J., 2015, The European Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics 2015. Optical Society of America, 1 p. CI_P_5

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Improved WDM performance of a fibre optical parametric amplifier using Raman-assisted pumping

Stephens, M. F. C., Phillips, I. D., Rosa, P., Harper, P. & Doran, N. J., 14 Jan 2015, In : Optics Express. 23, 2, p. 902-911 10 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Open Access
parametric amplifiers
light amplifiers
pumping
fibers
pumps

Optical and digital phase conjugation techniques for fiber nonlinearity compensation

Le, S. T., McCarthy, M. E., Turitsyn, S. K., Phillips, I., Lavery, D., Xu, T., Bayvel, P. & Ellis, A. D., 2015, Opto-Electronics and Communications Conference, OECC 2015. IEEE, 3 p.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Open Access
File
Optical phase conjugation
Backpropagation
Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing
Optical fibers
Polarization

RIN mitigation in second-order pumped Raman fibre laser based amplification

Tan, M., Rosa, P., Iqbal, M. A., Phillips, I., Nuño, J., Ania-Castañón, J. D. & Harper, P., 2015, Asia Communications and Photonics Conference 2015. Optical Society of America, paper AM2E.6. (OSA Technical Digest).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Fiber lasers
Amplification

The impact of pump phase-modulation and filtering on WDM signals in a fibre optical parametric amplifier

Stephens, M. F. C., Redyuk, A., Sygletos, S., Phillips, I., Harper, P., Blow, K. & Doran, N., 2015, Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference, 22–26 March 2015, Los Angeles, California, United States. Optical Society of America, paper W2A.43. (OSA technical digest).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Optical parametric amplifiers
Phase modulation
parametric amplifiers
Wavelength division multiplexing
light amplifiers

Unrepeatered Nyquist PDM-16QAM transmission over 364  km using Raman amplification and multi-channel digital back-propagation

Galdino, L., Tan, M., Lavery, D., Rosa, P., Maher, R., Phillips, I. D., Ania Castañón, J. D., Harper, P., Killey, R. I., Thomsen, B. C., Makovejs, S. & Bayvel, P., 19 Jun 2015, In : Optics Letters. 40, 13, p. 3025-3028 3 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalLetter

pulse duration modulation
optical fibers
nonlinearity
bandwidth
interference
2014

1.14Tb/s DP-QPSK WDM polarization-diverse optical phase conjugation

Stephens, M. F. C., Tan, M., Phillips, I. D., Sygletos, S., Harper, P. & Doran, N. J., 19 May 2014, In : Optics Express. 22, 10, p. 11840-11848 9 p.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Open Access
File
quadrature phase shift keying
optical polarization
phase conjugation
polarization
penalties

1THz-bandwidth polarization-diverse optical phase conjugation of 10x114Gb/s DP-QPSK WDM signals

Stephens, M. F., Tan, M., Phillips, I., Sygletos, S., Harper, P. & Doran, N. J., 2014, Optical Fiber Communication conference 2014. Optical Society of America, W3F.6. (OSA technical digest).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Open Access
File
Optical phase conjugation
Quadrature phase shift keying
Wavelength division multiplexing
Polarization
Bandwidth

Challenges of developing non-linear devices to achieve the linear Shannon limit

McCarthy, M. E., Sygletos, S., MacSuibhne, N., Tan, M., Stephens, M., Phillips, I. D., Harper, P., Doran, N. J. & Ellis, A. D., 31 Dec 2014, ICTON 2014 : 16th international conference on transparent optical networks. Jaworski, M. & Marciniak, M. (eds.). Warsaw (PL): National Institute of Telecommunications, 6 p. Th.B2.2

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Optical phase conjugation
Regenerators
Electric lines

Dual-polarization multi-band OFDM signals for next generation core networks

Giacoumidis, E., Le, T. S., Phillips, I. D., Ellis, A. D. & Doran, N. J., 31 Dec 2014, 2014 9th international symposium on Communication Systems, Networks and Digital Signl Processing, CSNDSP 2014. IEEE, p. 34-39 6 p.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing
Polarization
Dispersion compensation
Phase shift keying
Crosstalk

Exceeding the nonlinear-shannon limit using Raman laser based amplification and optical phase conjugation

Phillips, I., Tan, M., Stephens, M. F., McCarthy, M., Giacoumidis, E., Sygletos, S., Rosa, P., Fabbri, S., Le, S. T., Kanesan, T., Turitsyn, S. K., Doran, N. J., Harper, P. & Ellis, A. D., 2014, Optical Fiber Communication conference 2014. Optical Society of America, M3C.1. (OSA technical digest).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Open Access
File
Optical phase conjugation
Quadrature phase shift keying
Amplification
Lasers
Compensation and Redress

Experimental demonstration of data-dependent pilot-aided phase noise estimation for CO-OFDM

Le, S. T., Kanesan, T., McCarthy, M., Giakoumidis, E., Phillips, I., Stephens, M. F., Tan, M., Doran, N. J., Ellis, A. D. & Turitsyn, S. K., 2014, Optical Fiber Communication conference 2014. Optical Society of America, Tu3G. (OSA Technical Digest).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Open Access
File
Carbon Monoxide
Phase noise
Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing
Demonstrations

Long-haul transmission performance evaluation of ultra-long Raman fibre laser based amplification influenced by second order co-pumping

Tan, M., Rosa, P., Phillips, I. D. & Harper, P., 31 Dec 2014, Asia Communications and Photonics Conference 2014. Optical Society of America, Best Student Paper Award Competition (ATh1E). (OSA technical digest)(IEEE conference publications ).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Fiber lasers
Amplification
Pumps
Degradation

Multichannel regeneration of dual quadrature signals

Sygletos, S., McCarthy, M. E., Fabbri, S. J., Sorokina, M., Stephens, M. F. C., Phillips, I. D., Giacoumidis, E., MacSuibhne, N., Harper, P., Doran, N. J., Turitsyn, S. K. & Ellis, A. D., 31 Dec 2014, European Conference on Optical Communication, ECOC. IEEE, 3 p. P.3.13

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Phase shift
Wavelength

Nyquist-WDM PDM-QPSK transmission over SMF-28 fibre using URFL amplification

Rosa, P., Erkilinç, M. S., Maher, R., Paskov, M., Kilmurray, S., Tan, M., Harper, P., Phillips, I. D., Ellis, A. D., Ania-Castañón, J. D., Thomsen, B. C., Savory, S. J., Killey, R. I. & Bayvel, P., 31 Dec 2014, ICTON 2014 : 16th international conference on transparent optical networks. Jaworski, M. & Marciniak, M. (eds.). Warsaw (PL): National Institute of Telecommunications, 3 p. Tu.D1.5

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Quadrature phase shift keying
Wavelength division multiplexing
Pulse width modulation
Amplification
Fibers

Transmission comparison of ultra-long Raman fibre laser based amplification with first and dual order Raman amplification using 10×118 Gbit/s DP-QPSK

Tan, M., Rosa, P., Phillips, I. D., Stephens, M. F. C., Sygletos, S., Ellis, A. & Harper, P., 2014, ICTON 2014 : 16th international conference on transparent optical networks. Jaworski, M. & Marciniak, M. (eds.). Warsaw (PL): National Institute of Telecommunications, 4 p. Tu.C1.7

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Open Access
File
Quadrature phase shift keying
Fiber lasers
Amplification
Wavelength division multiplexing