A comparison of compacting and caking behavior of carbonate-based washing powders

M.C. Leaper, V. Leach, P.M. Taylor, D.C. Prime

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Two types of sodium carbonate powder produced by spray drying (SD) and dry neutralization (DN) were studied for their compaction properties using a uniaxial compression tester. A comparison was also made with Persil washing powder. Dry neutralized sodium carbonate showed greater resistance to compression and also produced a weaker compact when compressed to 100 kPa. Spray-dried sodium carbonate had an absence of fine particles but compacted easily. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) showed that both types of powder were predominantly amorphous in nature. Moisture sorption measurements showed that both powders behaved in a similar way below 50% relative humidity (RH). However, dry neutralized sodium carbonate had a high moisture affinity above this RH. Particle structures were also examined using scanning electron microscopy, showing the heterogeneous interior of the spray-dried particles.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)769-774
Number of pages6
JournalDrying Technology
Issue number7
Early online date3 May 2013
Publication statusPublished - 2013

Bibliographical note

This is an Author's Accepted Manuscript of an article published in Leaper, M. C., Leach, V., Taylor, P. M., & Prime, D. C. (2013). A comparison of compacting and caking behaviour of carbonate-based washing powders. Drying technology, 31(7), 769-774. Drying technology 2013 © Taylor & Francis, available online at: http://www.tandfonline.com/10.1080/07373937.2012.757553

Funding: Engineering and Physical Sciences Council (EPSRC) EP/G016224/1


  • caking
  • compaction characteristics
  • spray drying


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