OBJECTIVE: To investigate correlations between MRI perfusion metrics measured by dynamic susceptibility contrast and arterial spin labelling in paediatric brain tumours. METHODS: 15 paediatric patients with brain tumours were scanned prospectively using pseudo-continuous arterial spin labelling (ASL) and dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC-) MRI with a pre-bolus to minimise contrast agent leakage. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) maps were produced using ASL. Cerebral blood volume (CBV) maps with and without contrast agent leakage correction using the Boxerman technique and the leakage parameter, K2, were produced from the DSC data. Correlations between the metrics produced were investigated. RESULTS: Histology resulted in the following diagnoses: pilocytic astrocytoma (n = 7), glioblastoma (n = 1), medulloblastoma (n = 1), rosette-forming glioneuronal tumour of fourth ventricle (n = 1), atypical choroid plexus papilloma (n = 1) and pilomyxoid astrocytoma (n = 1). Three patients had a non-invasive diagnosis of low-grade glioma. DSC CBV maps of T1-enhancing tumours were difficult to interpret without the leakage correction. CBV values obtained with and without leakage correction were significantly different (p < 0.01). A significant positive correlation was observed between ASL CBF and DSC CBV (r = 0.516, p = 0.049) which became stronger when leakage correction was applied (r = 0.728, p = 0.002). K2 values were variable across the group (mean = 0.35, range = −0.49 to 0.64). CONCLUSION: CBV values from DSC obtained with and without leakage correction were significantly different. Large increases in CBV were observed following leakage correction in highly T1-enhancing tumours. DSC and ASL perfusion metrics were found to correlate significantly in a range of paediatric brain tumours. A stronger relationship between DSC and ASL was seen when leakage correction was applied to the DSC data. Leakage correction should be applied when analysing DSC data in enhancing paediatric brain tumours. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: We have shown that leakage correction should be applied when investigating enhancing paediatric brain tumours using DSC-MRI. A stronger correlation was found between CBF derived from ASL and CBV derived from DSC when a leakage correction was employed.
Bibliographical note© 2019 The Authors. Published by the British Institute of Radiology. Novak J, Withey SB, Lateef S, MacPherson L, Pinkey B, Peet AC. A comparison of pseudo-continuous arterial spin labelling and dynamic
susceptibility contrast MRI with and without contrast agent leakage correction in paediatric brain tumours. Br J Radiol 2019; 91: 20170872.