The annual growth of global energy demand and the associated environmental impacts (EIs) has an important role in the large sustainable and green global energy transition. Renewable energy systems have been attracting substantial economic, environmental, and technical attention throughout the last decade, while some have been in the market for almost a century. However, even renewable energy may negatively affect the environment, which is widely considered much less harsh than fossil energy resources. This, in return, requires more consideration and appropriate precautions to be taken. This work discusses the environmental impacts (EIs) of small and medium-sized wind, hydro, biomass, and geothermal power systems. The approach goes through all stages from planning and conception to construction and installation and throughout service life and decommissioning. For various circumstances and technically and ecologically viable guidelines for their effect on natural resources and wildlife, clear and comprehensive solutions have been given.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the University of Sharjah , Project No. 16020406129 , and partially funded by National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant from the Korean government ( MSIT ) (No. 2019R1A2C1006356 ).
- Environmental impacts
- Environmental solutions
- Hydro energy systems
- Wind energy systems