Titanium dioxide is currently the most important white pigment material used in the world and its surface properties are very important for consumer industries such as paints, papermaking and plastics. If agglomerates are present, the down-stream product properties such as gloss, opacity, and storage stability will be greatly affected. The addition of organic surface treatment agents onto the surface of titanium dioxide particles can change its surface: reduce the inter-particle forces to reduce particle agglomerates; change the hydrophobic or hydrophilic properties of particle surface to enhance the compatibility with the solvent, water, or organic resin; can also improve the particle mobility and industrial processing. Therefore, it is very important to fully understand the interaction mechanism between pigment particles and functional organic surface treatment agents. This paper summarizes the related research results and progress.