A simple bioanalytical method for the quantification of antiepileptic drugs in dried blood spots

N. Mohamed Shah, A.F. Hawwa, J.S. Millership, P.S. Collier, J.C. McElnay

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


An increasing number of publications on the dried blood spot (DBS) sampling approach for the quantification of drugs and metabolites have been spurred on by the inherent advantages of this sampling technique. In the present research, a selective and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography method for the concurrent determination of multiple antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) [levetiracetam (LVT), lamotrigine (LTG), phenobarbital (PHB)], carbamazepine (CBZ) and its active metabolite carbamazepine-10,11 epoxide (CBZE)] in a single DBS has been developed and validated. Whole blood was spotted onto Guthrie cards and dried. Using a standard punch (6 mm diameter), a circular disc was punched from the card and extracted with methanol: acetonitrile (3:1, v/v) containing hexobarbital (Internal Standard) and sonicated prior to evaporation. The extract was then dissolved in water and vortex mixed before undergoing solid phase extraction using HLB cartridges. Chromatographic separation of the AEDs was achieved using Waters XBridge™ C18 column with a gradient system. The developed method was linear over the concentration ranges studied with r ≥ 0.995 for all compounds. The lower limits of quantification (LLOQs) were 2, 1, 2, 0.5 and 1 μg/mL for LVT, LTG, PHB, CBZE and CBZ, respectively. Accuracy (%RE) and precision (%CV) values for within and between day were <20% at the LLOQs and <15% at all other concentrations tested. This method was successfully applied to the analysis of the AEDs in DBS samples taken from children with epilepsy for the assessment of their adherence to prescribed treatments.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)65-73
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Chromatography B
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2013

Bibliographical note

Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


  • antiepileptic drugs
  • dried blood spot
  • HPLC
  • children


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