Background and Objectives: Hyperbaric oxygen is a recognised treatment for a range of medical conditions, including treatment of diabetic foot disease. A number of studies have reported an impact of hyperbaric oxygen treatment on glycaemic control in patients undergoing treatment for diabetic foot disease. There has been no systematic review considering the impact of hyperbaric oxygen on glycaemia in people with diabetes. Materials and Methods: A prospectively PROSPERO-registered (PROSPERO registration: CRD42021255528) systematic review of eligible studies published in English in the PUBMED, MEDLINE, and EMBASE databases, based on the following search terms: hyperbaric oxygen therapy, HBO2, hyperbaric oxygenation, glycaemic control, diabetes, diabetes Mellitus, diabetic, HbA1c. Data extraction to pre-determined piloted data collection form, with individual assessment of bias. Results: In total, 10 eligible publications were identified after screening. Of these, six articles reported a statistically significant reduction in blood glucose from hyperbaric oxygen treatment, while two articles reported a statistically significant increase in peripheral insulin sensitivity. Two articles also identified a statistically significant reduction in HbA1c following hyperbaric oxygen treatment. Conclusions: There is emerging evidence suggesting a reduction in glycaemia following hyperbaric oxygen treatment in patients with diabetes mellitus, but the existing studies are in relatively small cohorts and potentially underpowered. Additional large prospective clinical trials are required to understand the precise impact of hyperbaric oxygen treatment on glycaemia for people with diabetes mellitus.
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