Activated carbon as a carrier for amorphous drug delivery: effect of drug characteristics and carrier wettability

Nikhila Miriyala, Defang Ouyang, Yvonne Perrie, Deborah Lowry, Daniel J. Kirby

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Recent research on porous silica materials as drug carriers for amorphous and controlled drug delivery has shown promising results. However, due to contradictory literature reports on toxicity and high costs of production, it is important to explore alternative safe and inexpensive porous carriers. In this study, the potential of activated carbon (AC) as an amorphous drug carrier was investigated using paracetamol (PA) and ibuprofen (IBU) as model drugs. The solution impregnation method was used for drug loading, with loading efficiency determined by UV spectroscopy and drug release kinetics studied using USP II dissolution apparatus. The physical state of the drug in the complex was characterised using differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffractions techniques, whilst sites of drug adsorption were studied using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and N2 adsorption techniques. In addition, the cytotoxicity of AC on human colon carcinoma (Caco-2) cells was assessed using the MTT assay. Results presented here reveal that, for PA/AC and IBU/AC complexes, the saturation solubility of the drug in the loading solvent appears to have an effect on the drug loading efficiency and the physical state of the drug loaded, whilst drug release kinetics were affected by the wettability of the activated carbon particles. Furthermore, activated carbon microparticles exhibited very low cytotoxicity on Caco-2 cells at the concentrations tested (10–800 μg/mL). This study, therefore, supports the potential of activated carbon as a carrier for amorphous drug delivery.
LanguageEnglish
Pages197–205
Number of pages9
JournalEuropean Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
Volume115
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2017

Fingerprint

Wettability
Drug Carriers
Carbon
Pharmaceutical Preparations
Caco-2 Cells
Ibuprofen
Acetaminophen
Adsorption
Pharmacokinetics
Differential Scanning Calorimetry
Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy
X-Ray Diffraction
Silicon Dioxide
Solubility
Spectrum Analysis
Colon
Carcinoma
Costs and Cost Analysis

Bibliographical note

© 2017, Elsevier. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/

Keywords

  • activated carbon
  • amorphous drug delivery
  • paracetamol
  • ibuprofen
  • oral drug delivery
  • porous carrier

Cite this

@article{7ba8d0e4d9c54577bd31f06d25019b2e,
title = "Activated carbon as a carrier for amorphous drug delivery: effect of drug characteristics and carrier wettability",
abstract = "Recent research on porous silica materials as drug carriers for amorphous and controlled drug delivery has shown promising results. However, due to contradictory literature reports on toxicity and high costs of production, it is important to explore alternative safe and inexpensive porous carriers. In this study, the potential of activated carbon (AC) as an amorphous drug carrier was investigated using paracetamol (PA) and ibuprofen (IBU) as model drugs. The solution impregnation method was used for drug loading, with loading efficiency determined by UV spectroscopy and drug release kinetics studied using USP II dissolution apparatus. The physical state of the drug in the complex was characterised using differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffractions techniques, whilst sites of drug adsorption were studied using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and N2 adsorption techniques. In addition, the cytotoxicity of AC on human colon carcinoma (Caco-2) cells was assessed using the MTT assay. Results presented here reveal that, for PA/AC and IBU/AC complexes, the saturation solubility of the drug in the loading solvent appears to have an effect on the drug loading efficiency and the physical state of the drug loaded, whilst drug release kinetics were affected by the wettability of the activated carbon particles. Furthermore, activated carbon microparticles exhibited very low cytotoxicity on Caco-2 cells at the concentrations tested (10–800 μg/mL). This study, therefore, supports the potential of activated carbon as a carrier for amorphous drug delivery.",
keywords = "activated carbon, amorphous drug delivery, paracetamol, ibuprofen, oral drug delivery, porous carrier",
author = "Nikhila Miriyala and Defang Ouyang and Yvonne Perrie and Deborah Lowry and Kirby, {Daniel J.}",
note = "{\circledC} 2017, Elsevier. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/",
year = "2017",
month = "3",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.ejpb.2017.03.002",
language = "English",
volume = "115",
pages = "197–205",
journal = "European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics",
issn = "0939-6411",
publisher = "Elsevier",

}

Activated carbon as a carrier for amorphous drug delivery : effect of drug characteristics and carrier wettability. / Miriyala, Nikhila; Ouyang, Defang; Perrie, Yvonne; Lowry, Deborah; Kirby, Daniel J.

In: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, Vol. 115, 01.03.2017, p. 197–205.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Activated carbon as a carrier for amorphous drug delivery

T2 - European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics

AU - Miriyala, Nikhila

AU - Ouyang, Defang

AU - Perrie, Yvonne

AU - Lowry, Deborah

AU - Kirby, Daniel J.

N1 - © 2017, Elsevier. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/

PY - 2017/3/1

Y1 - 2017/3/1

N2 - Recent research on porous silica materials as drug carriers for amorphous and controlled drug delivery has shown promising results. However, due to contradictory literature reports on toxicity and high costs of production, it is important to explore alternative safe and inexpensive porous carriers. In this study, the potential of activated carbon (AC) as an amorphous drug carrier was investigated using paracetamol (PA) and ibuprofen (IBU) as model drugs. The solution impregnation method was used for drug loading, with loading efficiency determined by UV spectroscopy and drug release kinetics studied using USP II dissolution apparatus. The physical state of the drug in the complex was characterised using differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffractions techniques, whilst sites of drug adsorption were studied using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and N2 adsorption techniques. In addition, the cytotoxicity of AC on human colon carcinoma (Caco-2) cells was assessed using the MTT assay. Results presented here reveal that, for PA/AC and IBU/AC complexes, the saturation solubility of the drug in the loading solvent appears to have an effect on the drug loading efficiency and the physical state of the drug loaded, whilst drug release kinetics were affected by the wettability of the activated carbon particles. Furthermore, activated carbon microparticles exhibited very low cytotoxicity on Caco-2 cells at the concentrations tested (10–800 μg/mL). This study, therefore, supports the potential of activated carbon as a carrier for amorphous drug delivery.

AB - Recent research on porous silica materials as drug carriers for amorphous and controlled drug delivery has shown promising results. However, due to contradictory literature reports on toxicity and high costs of production, it is important to explore alternative safe and inexpensive porous carriers. In this study, the potential of activated carbon (AC) as an amorphous drug carrier was investigated using paracetamol (PA) and ibuprofen (IBU) as model drugs. The solution impregnation method was used for drug loading, with loading efficiency determined by UV spectroscopy and drug release kinetics studied using USP II dissolution apparatus. The physical state of the drug in the complex was characterised using differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffractions techniques, whilst sites of drug adsorption were studied using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and N2 adsorption techniques. In addition, the cytotoxicity of AC on human colon carcinoma (Caco-2) cells was assessed using the MTT assay. Results presented here reveal that, for PA/AC and IBU/AC complexes, the saturation solubility of the drug in the loading solvent appears to have an effect on the drug loading efficiency and the physical state of the drug loaded, whilst drug release kinetics were affected by the wettability of the activated carbon particles. Furthermore, activated carbon microparticles exhibited very low cytotoxicity on Caco-2 cells at the concentrations tested (10–800 μg/mL). This study, therefore, supports the potential of activated carbon as a carrier for amorphous drug delivery.

KW - activated carbon

KW - amorphous drug delivery

KW - paracetamol

KW - ibuprofen

KW - oral drug delivery

KW - porous carrier

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85015102257&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.ejpb.2017.03.002

DO - 10.1016/j.ejpb.2017.03.002

M3 - Article

VL - 115

SP - 197

EP - 205

JO - European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics

JF - European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics

SN - 0939-6411

ER -