Since its introduction in 1978, data envelopment analysis (DEA) has become one of the preeminent nonparametric methods for measuring efficiency and productivity of decision making units (DMUs). Charnes et al. (1978) provided the original DEA constant returns to scale (CRS) model, later extended to variable returns to scale (VRS) by Banker et al. (1984). These ‘standard’ models are known by the acronyms CCR and BCC, respectively, and are now employed routinely in areas that range from assessment of public sectors, such as hospitals and health care systems, schools, and universities, to private sectors, such as banks and financial institutions (Emrouznejad et al. 2008; Emrouznejad and De Witte 2010). The main objective of this volume is to publish original studies that are beyond the two standard CCR and BCC models with both theoretical and practical applications using advanced models in DEA.