An examination of moderator effects in the four-stage loyalty model

Heiner Evanschitzky, Maren Wunderlich

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Oliver’s 1997 four-stage loyalty model proposes that loyalty consists of belief, affect, intention, and action. Although this loyalty model has recently been subject to empirical examination, the issue of moderator variables has been largely neglected. This article fills that void by analyzing the moderating effects of selected personal and situational characteristics, using a sample of 888 customers of a large do-it-yourself retailer. The results of multi-group causal analysis suggest that these moderators exert an influence on the development of the different stages of the loyalty sequence. Specifically, age, income, education and expertise, price orientation, critical incident recovery, and loyalty card membership are found to be important moderators of the links in the four-stage loyalty model. Limitations of the study are outlined, and implications for both research and managerial practice are discussed.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)330-345
Number of pages16
JournalJournal of Service Research
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - May 2006


  • customer loyalty
  • four-stage loyalty model
  • moderator effects
  • structural equation modeling


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