Vehicle-to-grid (V2G) system with efficient demand response management (DRM) is critical to solve the problem of supplying electricity by utilizing surplus electricity available at electric vehicles (EVs). An incentivized DRM approach is studied to reduce the system cost and maintain the system stability. EVs are motivated with dynamic pricing determined by the group-selling-based auction. In the proposed approach, a number of aggregators sit on the first-level auction responsible to communicate with a group of EVs. EVs as bidders consider quality of energy (QoE) requirements, and report interests and decisions on the bidding process coordinated by the associated aggregator. Auction winners are determined based on the bidding prices and the amount of electricity sold by the EV bidders. We investigate the impact of the proposed mechanism on the system performance with maximum feedback power constraints of aggregators. The designed mechanism is proven to have essential economic properties. Simulation results indicate that the proposed mechanism can reduce the system cost and offer EVs significant incentives to participate in the V2G DRM operation.
Bibliographical note© 2015 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. Permission from IEEE must be obtained for all other uses, in any current or future media, including reprinting/republishing this material for advertising or promotional purposes, creating new collective works, for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or reuse of any copyrighted component of this work in other works.
Funding: National Natural Science Foundation of China (61374189); Information Technology Research Projects of Ministry of Transport of China (2014364X14040); Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (ZYGX2013J009); and EU FP7 Project CLIMBER (PIRSES-GA-2012-318939)
- demand response management