An overview of eye-related photophobias

R.A. Armstrong

Research output: Chapter in Book/Published conference outputChapter (peer-reviewed)peer-review


This chapter provides an overview of the various eye-related causes of photophobia and the likely mechanisms responsible. Photophobia is the experience of discomfort affecting the eyes as a result of exposure to light. It has a variety of causes, including the result of eye or brain disease, or it can be a side effect of various drugs or laser surgery. Photophobia can also be a symptom of a more serious disorder such as meningitis and therefore, requires appropriate investigation, diagnosis, and treatment. Trauma or disease affecting several structures of the eye are a common cause of photophobia and can be associated with: (1) the ocular adnexia, such as blepharitis and blepharospasm, (2) the cornea, including abrasion, ulcerative keratitis, and corneal dystrophy, (3) problems in eye development, such as aniridia, buphthalmos, coloboma, and aphakia, (4) various eye inflammations, including uveitis, and (5) retinal disorders, such as achromatopsia, retinal detachment, and retinal dystrophy. There may be two main explanations for photophobia associated with these conditions: (1) direct stimulation of the trigeminal nerve due to damage, disease, or excessive light entering the eye and (2) overstimulation of the retina including a specific population of light-sensitive ganglion cells.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationAdvances in medicine and biology
EditorsLeon V. Berhardt
PublisherNova science
Number of pages20
ISBN (Electronic)978-1-63463-633-9
ISBN (Print)978-1-63463-312-3
Publication statusPublished - 2015

Publication series



  • eye photophobia
  • congenital abnormality
  • infection
  • corneal trauma
  • retinal diseases


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