Oxidized and chlorinated phospholipids are generated under inflammatory conditions and are increasingly understood to play important roles in diseases involving oxidative stress. MS is a sensitive and informative technique for monitoring phospholipid oxidation that can provide structural information and simultaneously detect a wide variety of oxidation products, including chain-shortened and -chlorinated phospholipids. MSn technologies involve fragmentation of the compounds to yield diagnostic fragment ions and thus assist in identification. Advanced methods such as neutral loss and precursor ion scanning can facilitate the analysis of specific oxidation products in complex biological samples. This is essential for determining the contributions of different phospholipid oxidation products in disease. While many pro-inflammatory signalling effects of oxPLs (oxidized phospholipids) have been reported, it has more recently become clear that they can also have anti-inflammatory effects in conditions such as infection and endotoxaemia. In contrast with free radical-generated oxPLs, the signalling effects of chlorinated lipids are much less well understood, but they appear to demonstrate mainly pro-inflammatory effects. Specific analysis of oxidized and chlorinated lipids and the determination of their molecular effects are crucial to understanding their role in disease pathology.
- mass spectrometry
- signal transduction