Both cytokines and tumor factors have been implicated in tissue loss in cancercachexia. Loss of adipose tissue is most likely due to the tumor (and host) factorzinc-α2-glycoprotein because of its direct lipolytic effect, ability to sensitizeadipocytes to lipolytic stimuli and increased expression in cachexia. TNF-α andthe tumor factor proteolysis-inducing factor are the major contenders for skeletalmuscle at rophy; both increase protein degradat ion through theubiquitin-proteasome pathway and depres s protein synthesis throughphosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2α. However, while most studiesreport proteolysis-inducing factor levels to correlate with the appearance ofcachexia, there is some disagreement regarding a correlation between serumlevels of TNF-α and weight loss. Furthermore, only antagonists to proteolysisinducingfactor prevent muscle loss in cancer patients, suggesting that tumorfactors are the most important.
- proteolysisinducing factor