White adipose tissue is a dynamic endocrine organ that releases an array of adipokines, which play a key role in regulating metabolic homeostasis and multiple other physiological processes. An altered adipokine secretion profile from adipose tissue depots frequently characterizes obesity and related cardio-metabolic diseases. Asprosin is a recently discovered adipokine that is released in response to fasting. Following secretion, asprosin acts - via an olfactory G-protein coupled receptor and potentially via other unknown receptor(s) - on hepatocytes and agouti-related peptide-expressing neurons in the central nervous system to stimulate glucose secretion and promote appetite, respectively. A growing body of both in vitro and in vivo studies have shown asprosin to exert a number of effects on different metabolic tissues. Indeed, asprosin can attenuate insulin signalling and promote insulin resistance in skeletal muscle by increasing inflammation and endoplasmic reticulum stress. Interestingly, asprosin may also play a protective role in cardiomyocytes that are exposed to hypoxic conditions. Moreover, clinical studies have reported elevated circulating asprosin levels in obesity, type 2 diabetes and other obesity-related cardio-metabolic diseases, with significant associations to clinically relevant parameters. Understanding the spectrum of the effects of this novel adipokine is essential in order to determine its physiologic role and its significance as a potential therapeutic target and/or a biomarker of cardio-metabolic disease. The present review offers a comprehensive overview of the published literature on asprosin, including both clinical and preclinical studies, focusing on its role in metabolism and cardio-metabolic disease.
|Journal||Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews|
|Early online date||28 May 2021|
|Publication status||E-pub ahead of print - 28 May 2021|
Bibliographical note© 2021, Elsevier. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/
- Adipose tissue