Astrocyte and neuronal plasticity in the somatosensory system

Robert E. Sims, John B. Butcher, H. Rheinallt Parri, Stanislaw Glazewski

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Abstract

Changing the whisker complement on a rodent's snout can lead to two forms of experience-dependent plasticity (EDP) in the neurons of the barrel cortex, where whiskers are somatotopically represented. One form, termed coding plasticity, concerns changes in synaptic transmission and connectivity between neurons. This is thought to underlie learning and memory processes and so adaptation to a changing environment. The second, called homeostatic plasticity, serves to maintain a restricted dynamic range of neuronal activity thus preventing its saturation or total downregulation. Current explanatory models of cortical EDP are almost exclusively neurocentric. However, in recent years, increasing evidence has emerged on the role of astrocytes in brain function, including plasticity. Indeed, astrocytes appear as necessary partners of neurons at the core of the mechanisms of coding and homeostatic plasticity recorded in neurons. In addition to neuronal plasticity, several different forms of astrocytic plasticity have recently been discovered. They extend from changes in receptor expression and dynamic changes in morphology to alteration in gliotransmitter release. It is however unclear how astrocytic plasticity contributes to the neuronal EDP. Here, we review the known and possible roles for astrocytes in the barrel cortex, including its plasticity.

LanguageEnglish
Article number732014
Number of pages12
JournalNeural Plasticity
Volume2015
Early online date4 Aug 2015
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2015

Fingerprint

Neuronal Plasticity
Astrocytes
Neurons
Vibrissae
Synaptic Transmission
Rodentia
Down-Regulation
Learning
Brain

Bibliographical note

Copyright © 2015 Robert E. Sims et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Funding: BBSRC: BB/J018422/1 and BB/J017809/1

Cite this

Sims, Robert E. ; Butcher, John B. ; Parri, H. Rheinallt ; Glazewski, Stanislaw. / Astrocyte and neuronal plasticity in the somatosensory system. In: Neural Plasticity. 2015 ; Vol. 2015.
@article{f2a9b72a154441e0bbe318777d176298,
title = "Astrocyte and neuronal plasticity in the somatosensory system",
abstract = "Changing the whisker complement on a rodent's snout can lead to two forms of experience-dependent plasticity (EDP) in the neurons of the barrel cortex, where whiskers are somatotopically represented. One form, termed coding plasticity, concerns changes in synaptic transmission and connectivity between neurons. This is thought to underlie learning and memory processes and so adaptation to a changing environment. The second, called homeostatic plasticity, serves to maintain a restricted dynamic range of neuronal activity thus preventing its saturation or total downregulation. Current explanatory models of cortical EDP are almost exclusively neurocentric. However, in recent years, increasing evidence has emerged on the role of astrocytes in brain function, including plasticity. Indeed, astrocytes appear as necessary partners of neurons at the core of the mechanisms of coding and homeostatic plasticity recorded in neurons. In addition to neuronal plasticity, several different forms of astrocytic plasticity have recently been discovered. They extend from changes in receptor expression and dynamic changes in morphology to alteration in gliotransmitter release. It is however unclear how astrocytic plasticity contributes to the neuronal EDP. Here, we review the known and possible roles for astrocytes in the barrel cortex, including its plasticity.",
author = "Sims, {Robert E.} and Butcher, {John B.} and Parri, {H. Rheinallt} and Stanislaw Glazewski",
note = "Copyright {\circledC} 2015 Robert E. Sims et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Funding: BBSRC: BB/J018422/1 and BB/J017809/1",
year = "2015",
doi = "10.1155/2015/732014",
language = "English",
volume = "2015",
journal = "Neural Plasticity",
issn = "2090-5904",
publisher = "Hindawi Publishing Corporation",

}

Astrocyte and neuronal plasticity in the somatosensory system. / Sims, Robert E.; Butcher, John B.; Parri, H. Rheinallt; Glazewski, Stanislaw.

In: Neural Plasticity, Vol. 2015, 732014, 2015.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

TY - JOUR

T1 - Astrocyte and neuronal plasticity in the somatosensory system

AU - Sims, Robert E.

AU - Butcher, John B.

AU - Parri, H. Rheinallt

AU - Glazewski, Stanislaw

N1 - Copyright © 2015 Robert E. Sims et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Funding: BBSRC: BB/J018422/1 and BB/J017809/1

PY - 2015

Y1 - 2015

N2 - Changing the whisker complement on a rodent's snout can lead to two forms of experience-dependent plasticity (EDP) in the neurons of the barrel cortex, where whiskers are somatotopically represented. One form, termed coding plasticity, concerns changes in synaptic transmission and connectivity between neurons. This is thought to underlie learning and memory processes and so adaptation to a changing environment. The second, called homeostatic plasticity, serves to maintain a restricted dynamic range of neuronal activity thus preventing its saturation or total downregulation. Current explanatory models of cortical EDP are almost exclusively neurocentric. However, in recent years, increasing evidence has emerged on the role of astrocytes in brain function, including plasticity. Indeed, astrocytes appear as necessary partners of neurons at the core of the mechanisms of coding and homeostatic plasticity recorded in neurons. In addition to neuronal plasticity, several different forms of astrocytic plasticity have recently been discovered. They extend from changes in receptor expression and dynamic changes in morphology to alteration in gliotransmitter release. It is however unclear how astrocytic plasticity contributes to the neuronal EDP. Here, we review the known and possible roles for astrocytes in the barrel cortex, including its plasticity.

AB - Changing the whisker complement on a rodent's snout can lead to two forms of experience-dependent plasticity (EDP) in the neurons of the barrel cortex, where whiskers are somatotopically represented. One form, termed coding plasticity, concerns changes in synaptic transmission and connectivity between neurons. This is thought to underlie learning and memory processes and so adaptation to a changing environment. The second, called homeostatic plasticity, serves to maintain a restricted dynamic range of neuronal activity thus preventing its saturation or total downregulation. Current explanatory models of cortical EDP are almost exclusively neurocentric. However, in recent years, increasing evidence has emerged on the role of astrocytes in brain function, including plasticity. Indeed, astrocytes appear as necessary partners of neurons at the core of the mechanisms of coding and homeostatic plasticity recorded in neurons. In addition to neuronal plasticity, several different forms of astrocytic plasticity have recently been discovered. They extend from changes in receptor expression and dynamic changes in morphology to alteration in gliotransmitter release. It is however unclear how astrocytic plasticity contributes to the neuronal EDP. Here, we review the known and possible roles for astrocytes in the barrel cortex, including its plasticity.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84939604877&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1155/2015/732014

DO - 10.1155/2015/732014

M3 - Review article

VL - 2015

JO - Neural Plasticity

T2 - Neural Plasticity

JF - Neural Plasticity

SN - 2090-5904

M1 - 732014

ER -