Transcription in most bacteria is tightly regulated in order to facilitate bacterial adaptation to different environments, and transcription factors play a key role in this. Here we give a brief overview of the essential features of bacterial transcription factors and how they affect transcript initiation at target promoters. We focus on complex promoters that are regulated by combinations of activators and repressors, combinations of repressors only, or combinations of activators. At some promoters, transcript initiation is regulated by nucleoid-associated proteins, which often work together with transcription factors. We argue that the distinction between nucleoid-associated proteins and transcription factors is blurred and that they likely share common origins.
- Bacterial Proteins/metabolism
- Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial
- Promoter Regions, Genetic
- Transcription Factors/metabolism
- Transcription Initiation, Genetic