BCLA CLEAR Presbyopia: Definitions

James S. Wolffsohn, Shehzad A. Naroo, Mark A. Bullimore, Jennifer P. Craig, Leon N. Davies, Maria Markoulli, Cristina Schnider, Philip B. Morgan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Presbyopia is often the first sign of ageing experienced by humans. Standardising terminology and adopting it across the BCLA CLEAR Presbyopia reports, improves consistency in the communication of the evidence-based understanding of this universal physiological process. Presbyopia can be functionally and psychologically debilitating, especially for those with poor access to eyecare. Presbyopia was defined as occurring when the physiologically normal age-related reduction in the eye's focusing range reaches a point that, when optimally corrected for far vision, the clarity of vision at near is insufficient to satisfy an individual's requirements. Accommodation is the change in optical power of the eye due to a change in crystalline lens shape and position, whereas pseudo-accommodation is the attainment of functional near vision in an emmetropic or far-corrected eye without changing the refractive power of the eye. Other definitions specific to vision and lenses for presbyopia were also defined. It is recommended that these definitions be consistently adopted in order to standardise future research, clinical evaluations and education.

Original languageEnglish
Article number102155
Number of pages8
JournalContact lens & anterior eye : the journal of the British Contact Lens Association
Early online date11 Apr 2024
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 11 Apr 2024

Bibliographical note

Copyright © 2024. The Authors on behalf of British Contact Lens Association. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/)


  • Accommodation
  • Extended depth of focus
  • Monovision
  • Multifocal lenses
  • Presbyopia
  • Progressive lenses
  • Pseudo-accommodation
  • Simultaneous vision


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