Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS): A second-order confirmatory factor analysis.

Paolo Iliceto, Emanuele Fino

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS) is an instrument for assessing cognitive thoughts among suicidal persons. Previous studies have identified different factor structures of the BHS. However, results were not conclusive. The aim of this study was to test the factor structure of the BHS in a sample of Italian individuals (N = 509) from the community, and secondarily to investigate correlations between the BHS, depression (Beck Depression Inventory Second Edition), and personality traits (Zuckerman-Kuhlman-Aluja Personality Questionnaire). Following recommendations of previous investigations, we utilized a 5-point response format. We applied a second-order Confirmatory Factor Analyses and tested for the model invariance. The results suggest that besides a single second-order factor, a second-order three-factor solution is also reasonable, in line with Beck’s theorization. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved)
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)31-37
JournalEuropean Journal of Psychological Assessment
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2015


  • hopelessness
  • confirmatory factor analysis
  • Beck Hopelessness Scale
  • depression
  • neuroticism


Dive into the research topics of 'Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS): A second-order confirmatory factor analysis.'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this