Microglia-mediated neuroinflammatory responses are inevitable and important pathological processes in several kinds of disorder of the central nervous system (CNS). Therefore, alleviating activated microglia-induced inflammatory process might be a valuable therapeutic approach to neuroinflammation-related diseases. In the present study, we investigated BHDPC, a novel neuroprotectant discovered in our previous study that had anti-inflammatory effects under neuroinflammatory conditions. First, we found that BHDPC could inhibit neuroinflammatory responses and promote microglial M2 phenotype polarization in both lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated BV-2 microglia l cells. Furthermore, BHDPC provided protective actions against neuroinflammation-induced neurotoxicity in HT22 mouse hippocampal cells co-cultured with activated BV-2 microglia. Further experiments demonstrated that BHDPC could suppress LPS-induced activation of transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) via interfering with the degradation of the inhibitor of kappa B (IκB) and phosphorylation of IκB, the IκB kinase (IKK). Moreover, we also found that BHDPC could induce phosphorylation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) and cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) in BV-2 microglial cells. Also, using the PKA-specific inhibitor, we found that BHDPC-induced CREB phosphorylation was dependent on PKA, which also contributed to BHDPC-mediated anti-inflammation and neuroprotection.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This study was supported by grants from The Science and Technology Development Fund (FDCT) of Macao SAR (Nos. 069/2015/A2, 134/2014/A3, and 017/2015/AMJ) and the Research Committee of the University of Macau (MYRG2016-00129-ICMS-QRCM, MYRG2016-00133-ICMS-QRCM, MYRG2015-00214-ICMSQRCM, and MYRG2015-00182-ICMS-QRCM).
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