Biomarkers

Helen R. Griffiths, Lennart Møller, Grzegorz Bartosz, Aalt Bast, Carlo Bertoni-Freddari, Andrew Collins, Marcus Cooke, Stefan Coolen, Guido Haenen, Anne Mette Hoberg, Steffen Loft, Joe Lunec, Ryszard Olinski, James Parry, Alfonso Pompella, Henrik Poulsen, Hans Verhagen, Siân B. Astley

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Introduction – Why do we need ‘biomarkers? Biomarkers of protein oxidation Introduction Major issues/questions Protein carbonyl biomarkers Biochemistry Methods of measurement Storage, stability and limitations in use Protein thiol biomarkers Biochemistry Methods of measurement Storage, stability and limitations on use Aliphatic amino acid biomarkers Biochemistry Methods of measurement Storage, stability and limitations on use Oxidised Tryptophan Biomarkers Biochemistry Method of measurement Storage, stability and limitations on use Oxidised tyrosine biomarkers Biochemistry Methods of measurement Storage, stability and limitations on use Formation of neoepitopes on oxidised proteins Validation of assays for protein oxidation biomarkers Relationship of protein oxidation to disease Modulation of protein oxidation biomarkers by antioxidants Future perspectives Introduction to lipid peroxidation biomarkers Introduction: biochemistry of lipid peroxidation Malondialdehyde Methods of measurement Storage, stability and limitations on use Conjugated dienes Method of measurement Storage, stability and limitations of use LDL lag phase Method of measurement Storage, stability and limitations of use Hydrocarbon gases Biochemistry Method of measurement Storage, stability and limitations on use Lipofuscin Biochemistry Method of measurement Storage, stability and limitation on use Lipid peroxides Biochemistry Method of measurement Storage, stability and limitations on use Isoprostanes Biochemistry Method of measurement Storage, stability and limitations on use Possible new biomarkers of lipid oxidation Relationship of lipid peroxidation to disease Modulation of lipid peroxidation biomarkers by antioxidants Functional consequences of lipid peroxidation Contribution of dietary intake to lipid peroxidation products Biomarkers of DNA oxidation Introduction Confounding factors Units and terminology Nuclear and mitochondrial DNA damage Lymphocytes as surrogate tissues Measurement of DNA damage with the comet assay Practical details Storage, stability, and limitations of the assay Measurement of DNA base oxidation by HPLC Practical details Storage, stability and limitations of the method Measurement of DNA base oxidation by GC–MS Biochemistry of 8-oxoguanine, adenine and fapy derivatives Methods of measurement Storage, stability and limitations of the method Analysis of guanine oxidation products in urine Method of measurement Limitations and criticisms Immunochemical methods Methods of measurement Storage, stability, and limitations of the assay 32P post-labelling Method of measurement Limitations and criticisms Validation of assays for DNA oxidation Oxo-dGuo in lymphocyte DNA Urinary measurements DNA–aldehyde adducts Biochemistry Method of measurement Products of reactive nitrogen species Endpoints arising from oxidative DNA damage Mutations Chromosome aberrations Micronuclei Site-specific DNA damage Relationship of DNA oxidation to disease Modulation of DNA oxidation biomarkers by antioxidants Direct and indirect effects of oxidative stress: measures of total oxidant/antioxidant levels Visualisation of cellular oxidants Biochemistry: histochemical detection of ROS Method of measurement Limitations, storage and stability Measurement of hydrogen peroxide Biochemistry Methods of measurement Storage, stability and limitations on use Measurement of the ratio of antioxidant/oxidised antioxidant Biochemistry Method of measurement Storage, stability and limitations on use Total antioxidant capacity Biochemistry Terminology Methods of measurement Storage, stability and limitations on use Validation of assays for direct oxidant and antioxidant biomarkers Relationship of oxidant/antioxidant measurement to disease Modulation of oxidant/antioxidant biomarkers by dietary antioxidants Induction of genes in response to oxidative stress Background Measurement of antioxidant responsive genes and proteins Effects of antioxidant intake on the activity of antioxidant enzymes
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)101-208
Number of pages108
JournalMolecular Aspects of Medicine
Volume23
Issue number1-3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2002

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Keywords

  • biomarkers
  • protein
  • oxidation
  • carbonyl
  • thiol
  • tyrosine
  • neoepitopes
  • oxidised
  • disease
  • antioxidant
  • lipid
  • peroxidation
  • malondialdehyde
  • conjugated dienes
  • hydrocarbon gases
  • lipofuscin
  • lipid peroxide
  • isoprostane
  • dietary intake
  • DNA oxidation
  • nuclear damage
  • mitochondrial DNA damage
  • lymphocytes
  • surrogate tissue
  • comet assay
  • 8-oxoguanine
  • adenine
  • fapy derivatives
  • immunochemical methods
  • 32P post-labelling
  • Oxo-dGuo in lymphocyte DNA
  • urinary
  • DNA–aldehyde adduct
  • chromosome aberrations
  • micronuclei

Cite this

Griffiths, H. R., Møller, L., Bartosz, G., Bast, A., Bertoni-Freddari, C., Collins, A., Cooke, M., Coolen, S., Haenen, G., Hoberg, A. M., Loft, S., Lunec, J., Olinski, R., Parry, J., Pompella, A., Poulsen, H., Verhagen, H., & Astley, S. B. (2002). Biomarkers. Molecular Aspects of Medicine, 23(1-3), 101-208. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0098-2997(02)00017-1