Biological nanoparticles include liposomes, extracellular vesicle and lipid-based discoidal systems. When studying such particles, there are several key parameters of interest, including particle size and concentration. Measuring these characteristics can be of particular importance in the research laboratory or when producing such particles as biotherapeutics. This article briefly describes the major types of lipid-containing nanoparticles and the techniques that can be used to study them. Such methodologies include electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, dynamic light scattering, nanoparticle tracking analysis, flow cytometry, tunable resistive pulse sensing and microfluidic resistive pulse sensing. Whilst no technique is perfect for the analysis of all nanoparticles, this article provides advantages and disadvantages of each, highlighting the latest developments in the field. Finally, we demonstrate the use of microfluidic resistive pulse sensing for the analysis of biological nanoparticles.
Bibliographical note© 2020, Elsevier. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/
Funding: We are grateful for funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under Marie Sklodowska-Curie grant agreement No 847419 (MemTrain) and from Innovate UK in the form of a Knowledge Transfer Partnership between Aston University and Meritics Ltd (KTP 11605).
- Extracellular vesicles