Blockchain and IoMT against Physical Abuse: Bullying in Schools as a Case Study

Nikolaos Ersotelos, Mirko Bottarelli, Haider Al-Khateeb, Gregory Epiphaniou, Zhraa A. Alhaboby, Prashant Pillai, Amar Aggoun

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


By law, schools are required to protect the well-being of students against problems such as on-campus bullying and physical abuse. In the UK, a report by the Office for Education (OfE) showed 17% of young people had been bullied during 2017–2018. This problem continues to prevail with consequences including depression, anxiety, suicidal thoughts, and eating disorders. Additionally, recent evidence suggests this type of victimisation could intensify existing health complications. This study investigates the opportunities provided by Internet of Medical Things (IoMT) data towards next-generation safeguarding. A new model is developed based on blockchain technology to enable real-time intervention triggered by IoMT data that can be used to detect stressful events, e.g., when bullying takes place. The model utilises private permissioned blockchain to manage IoMT data to achieve quicker and better decision-making while revolutionising aspects related to compliance, double-entry, confidentiality, and privacy. The feasibility of the model and the interaction between the sensors and the blockchain was simulated. To facilitate a close approximation of an actual IoMT environment, we clustered and decomposed existing medical sensors to their attributes, including their function, for a variety of scenarios. Then, we demonstrated the performance and capabilities of the emulator under different loads of sensor-generated data. We argue to the suitability of this emulator for schools and medical centres to conduct feasibility studies to address sensor data with disruptive data processing and management technologies.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages20
JournalJournal of Sensor and Actuator Networks
Issue number1
Early online date29 Dec 2020
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 29 Dec 2020

Bibliographical note

© 2020 by the authors. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (

Funding Information:
This research was funded by Innovate UK, grant number 133891.


  • blockchain
  • smart contracts
  • medical sensors
  • academy
  • bullying students
  • chronic conditions
  • vulnerable groups


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