Can (A)I Give You a Ride? Development and Validation of the CRUISE Framework for Autonomous Vehicle Services

Victoria Sophie Osburg*, Vignesh Yoganathan, Werner H. Kunz, Shlomo Tarba

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Advances in artificial intelligence (AI) are increasingly enabling firms to develop services that utilize autonomous vehicles (AVs). Yet, there are significant psychological barriers to adoption, and insights from extant literature are insufficient to understand customer emotions regarding AV services. To allow for a holistic exploration of customer perspectives, we synthesize multidisciplinary literature to develop the Customer Responses to Unmanned Intelligent-transport Services based on Emotions (CRUISE) framework, which lays the foundation for improved strategizing, targeting, and positioning of AV services. We subsequently provide empirical support for several propositions underpinning the CRUISE framework using representative multinational panel data (N = 27,565) and an implicit association test (N = 300). We discover four distinct customer segments based on their preferred degree of service autonomy and service risk. The segments also differ in terms of the valence and intensity of emotional responses to fully autonomous vehicle services. Additionally, exposure to positive information about AV services negatively correlates with the likelihood of membership in the two most resistant segments. Our contribution to service research is chiefly twofold; we provide: 1) a formal treatise of AV services, emphasizing their uniqueness and breadth of application, and 2) empirically validated managerial directions for effective strategizing based on the CRUISE framework.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)630-648
Number of pages19
JournalJournal of Service Research
Issue number4
Early online date10 Aug 2022
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© The Author(s) 2022.


  • artificial intelligence
  • driverless car
  • emotions
  • segmentation
  • service automation


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