Capacitated dynamic lot sizing problems in closed-loop supply chain

Zhendong Pan*, Jiafu Tang, Ou Liu

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In this paper, we address the capacitated dynamic lot sizing problem arising in closed-loop supply chain where returned products are collected from customers. These returned products can either be disposed or be remanufactured to be sold as new ones again; hence the market demands can be satisfied by either newly produced products or remanufactured ones. The capacities of production, disposal and remanufacturing are limited, and backlogging is not allowed. A general model of this problem is formulated, and several useful properties of the problem are characterized when cost functions are concave. Moreover, this problem is analyzed and solved to optimality using dynamic programming algorithms under different scenarios. It is shown that the problem with only disposal or remanufacturing can be converted into a traditional capacitated lot sizing problem and be solved by a polynomial algorithm if the capacities are constant. A pseudo-polynomial algorithm is proposed for the problem with both capacitated disposal and remanufacturing. The problem with capacitated production and remanufacturing and the problem with uncapacitated production and capacitated remanufacturing are also analyzed and solved. Through numerical experiments we show that the proposed algorithms perform well when solving problems of practical sizes. From the experimental results also indicates that it is worthwhile to expand the remanufacturing capacity only when returned products exist in a relatively long planning horizon, and production capacities have little effect on the remanufacturing plan when the demand is mainly satisfied by the production.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)810-821
Number of pages12
JournalEuropean Journal of Operational Research
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2009


  • Capacitated dynamic lot sizing problem
  • Closed-loop supply chain
  • Disposal
  • Production
  • Remanufacturing


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