New heterogenized catalytic systems for the low-temperature oxidation of CO were synthesized by supporting solutions of Pd, Cu, and Fe salts on carbon fibrous materials (carbopon and busofit). The carbon supports were studied by elemental analysis, SEM, TGA, and TPD. The effects of the nature of the support, the concentration and composition of the active component, and the conditions of preparation on the efficiency of the catalytic system were studied. It was ascertained that attenuation of hydrophilic properties of the support led to the decrease in system activity. The investigation of the catalysts by XPS showed that sample treatment in the reaction medium results in redistribution of the components of the active phase in the near-surface layer of the catalyst. The catalytic system based on carbon fibrous material carbopon prepared by supporting active components (Pd, Cu, and Fe salts) in three stages with intermediate activation in the reaction medium ensures 95% conversion of CO under respiratory conditions, and is promising for the design of the main element of breathing masks on its basis.