The chemistry used in key bond-forming steps to prepare nucleobases with designed patterns of hydrogen bonding is surveyed. Incorporation of the nucleobases into DNA and RNA oligomers is achieved either chemically using building blocks such as nucleoside phosphoramidites or enzymatically using nucleotide triphosphates. By varying the hydrogen bonding pattern within nucleobases, and by incorporating additional substituents, new structures have been designed that "reach over" so that contacts with both strands in targeted duplex DNA can be made in antigene strategies to control gene expression. Various new base-pairing systems have been evaluated that expand the genetic alphabet beyond Watson-Crick base pairs A.T and G.C. For example, benzo-homologated analogs of the natural DNA bases represent a new genetic set of orthogonal, size-expanded derivatives that have been shown to encode amino acids of a protein in a living organism.
|Name||Advances in heterocyclic chemistry|
- base pair
- hydrogen bonding