Apoptosis is a highly regulated process that removes damaged or unwanted cells in vivo and defective clearance of apoptotic cells by macrophages has significant immunological implications. Tissue transglutaminase 2 (TG2) is a Ca2+-dependent protein cross linking enzyme known to play an important role in cell proliferation, differentiation, carcinogenesis, programmed death, and aging. TG2 as a guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-binding or GTP- hydrolyzing protein for mediating signal transduction and as a cell cycle regulator emphasized the importance of this enzyme in aging process. The ubiquitous presence of TG2 compared to the other organ-specific TGases has attracted special attention as a cellular aging device. TG2 activity and expression are known to increase in aging humans suggesting possible involvement in several age-related processes such as decrease in vascular compliance and increased stiffening of conduit arteries, cataract formation, Alzheimer's disease and senescent epidermal keratinocytes. Our work aims to characterize the role of TG2 and its partners (e.g. syndecan-4 and ß3 integrin) in macrophage function. THP-1 cell derived macrophage-like cells and primary human macrophages were analyzed for the expression and function of TG2. Macrophage-apoptotic cell interaction studies in the presence of TG2 inhibitors resulted in significant inhibition of interaction. Macrophage cell surface TG2 and, in particular, its cell surface cross linking activity was found to be crucial in apoptotic cell clearance. Syndecan-4 association with TG2 implies possible cooperation of these proteins and knockdown studies of syndecan-4 reveal its importance in apoptotic cell clearance. Our current findings suggest that TG2 has a crucial but yet to be fully defined role in apoptotic cell clearance.
|Number of pages||1|
|Publication status||Published - 2012|
|Event||British Society for Research on Ageing - Birmingham, United Kingdom|
Duration: 2 Jul 2012 → 4 Jul 2012
|Conference||British Society for Research on Ageing|
|Period||2/07/12 → 4/07/12|