Clinical evaluation of the Grand Seiko Auto Ref/Keratometer WAM-5500

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Purpose: A clinical evaluation of the Grand Seiko Auto Ref/Keratometer WAM-5500 (Japan) was performed to evaluate validity and repeatability compared with non-cycloplegic subjective refraction and Javal–Schiotz keratometry. An investigation into the dynamic recording capabilities of the instrument was also conducted. Methods: Refractive error measurements were obtained from 150 eyes of 75 subjects (aged 25.12 ± 9.03 years), subjectively by a masked optometrist, and objectively with the WAM-5500 at a second session. Keratometry measurements from the WAM-5500 were compared to Javal–Schiotz readings. Intratest variability was examined on all subjects, whilst intertest variability was assessed on a subgroup of 44 eyes 7–14 days after the initial objective measures. The accuracy of the dynamic recording mode of the instrument and its tolerance to longitudinal movement was evaluated using a model eye. An additional evaluation of the dynamic mode was performed using a human eye in relaxed and accommodated states. Results: Refractive error determined by the WAM-5500 was found to be very similar (p = 0.77) to subjective refraction (difference, -0.01 ± 0.38 D). The instrument was accurate and reliable over a wide range of refractive errors (-6.38 to +4.88 D). WAM-5500 keratometry values were steeper by approximately 0.05 mm in both the vertical and horizontal meridians. High intertest repeatability was demonstrated for all parameters measured: for sphere, cylinder power and MSE, over 90% of retest values fell within ±0.50 D of initial testing. In dynamic (high-speed) mode, the root-mean-square of the fluctuations was 0.005 ± 0.0005 D and a high level of recording accuracy was maintained when the measurement ring was significantly blurred by longitudinal movement of the instrument head. Conclusion: The WAM-5500 Auto Ref/Keratometer represents a reliable and valid objective refraction tool for general optometric practice, with important additional features allowing pupil size determination and easy conversion into high-speed mode, increasing its usefulness post-surgically following accommodating intra-ocular lens implantation, and as a research tool in the study of accommodation.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)143-151
Number of pages9
JournalOphthalmic and Physiological Optics
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2010


  • accommodation
  • autorefraction
  • keratometry
  • repeatability
  • subjective refraction
  • validity


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