Cocoa and chocolate, their clinical benefits: Insights in study design

Duane D. Mellor*, Ekavi N. Georgousopoulou, Nenad Naumovski

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses have demonstrated the potential protective effect of cocoa and chocolate consumption with respect to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk markers. Findings from experimental studies are in concordance with observational data, which include reduction in clinical disease (especially stroke) being associated with chocolate consumption. However, the effect size of any benefit, and the exact mechanism of action due to variability in reporting of dose and type potential bioactive compounds remains unclear. Thus, the present review aimed to analyse the published work where cocoa and chocolate have been assessed for their potential to protect against CVD and highlight the role of study design and type of product used in the variances of outcomes and how that might be used in formulating health advice.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-7
JournalCAB Reviews: Perspectives in Agriculture, Veterinary Science, Nutrition and Natural Resources
Issue number18
Publication statusPublished - 3 Jul 2017

Bibliographical note

This material has been published in CAB Reviews, Vol 12, Issue 018, 1-7, the only
accredited archive of the content that has been certified and accepted after peer
review. Copyright and all rights therein are retained by CABl.


  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Chocolate
  • Cocoa
  • Review
  • Risk factors


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