Combustion of fuel blends containing digestate pyrolysis oil in a multi-cylinder compression ignition engine

A.K. Hossain, C. Serrano, J. Brammer, A. Omran, F. Ahmed, D.I. Smith, P.A. Davies

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Digestate from the anaerobic digestion conversion process is widely used as a farm land fertiliser. This study proposes an alternative use as a source of energy. Dried digestate was pyrolysed and the resulting oil was blended with waste cooking oil and butanol (10, 20 and 30 vol.%). The physical and chemical properties of the pyrolysis oil blends were measured and compared with pure fossil diesel and waste cooking oil. The blends were tested in a multi-cylinder indirect injection compression ignition engine.Engine combustion, exhaust gas emissions and performance parameters were measured and compared with pure fossil diesel operation. The ASTM copper corrosion values for 20% and 30% pyrolysis blends were 2c, compared to 1b for fossil diesel. The kinematic viscosities of the blends at 40 C were 5–7 times higher than that of fossil diesel. Digested pyrolysis oil blends produced lower in-cylinder peak pressures than fossil diesel and waste cooking oil operation. The maximum heat release rates of the blends were approximately 8% higher than with fossil diesel. The ignition delay periods of the blends were higher; pyrolysis oil blends started to combust late and once combustion started burnt quicker than fossil diesel. The total burning duration of the 20% and 30% blends were decreased by 12% and 3% compared to fossil diesel. At full engine load, the brake thermal efficiencies of the blends were decreased by about 3–7% when compared to fossil diesel. The pyrolysis blends gave lower smoke levels; at full engine load, smoke level of the 20% blend was 44% lower than fossil diesel. In comparison to fossil diesel and at full load, the
brake specific fuel consumption (wt.) of the 30% and 20% blends were approximately 32% and 15% higher. At full engine load, the CO emission of the 20% and 30% blends were decreased by 39% and 66% with respect to the fossil diesel. Blends CO2 emissions were similar to that of fossil diesel; at full engine load, 30% blend produced approximately 5% higher CO2 emission than fossil diesel. The study concludes that on the basis of short term engine experiment up to 30% blend of pyrolysis oil from digestate of arable crops can be used in a compression ignition engine.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)18-28
Number of pages9
JournalFuel
Volume171
Early online date23 Dec 2015
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2016

Fingerprint

Engine cylinders
Ignition
Oils
Pyrolysis
Engines
Cooking
Smoke
Copper corrosion
Vehicle Emissions
Butanols
Anaerobic digestion
Fertilizers
Carbon Monoxide
Exhaust gases
Butenes
Gas emissions
Brakes
Fuel consumption
Farms
Chemical properties

Bibliographical note

© 2015, Elsevier. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/

Funding: FP7/2007–2013 (grant 286244)

Keywords

  • CI engine
  • anaerobic digestion
  • intermediate pyrolysis
  • digestate
  • combustion
  • emission

Cite this

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title = "Combustion of fuel blends containing digestate pyrolysis oil in a multi-cylinder compression ignition engine",
abstract = "Digestate from the anaerobic digestion conversion process is widely used as a farm land fertiliser. This study proposes an alternative use as a source of energy. Dried digestate was pyrolysed and the resulting oil was blended with waste cooking oil and butanol (10, 20 and 30 vol.{\%}). The physical and chemical properties of the pyrolysis oil blends were measured and compared with pure fossil diesel and waste cooking oil. The blends were tested in a multi-cylinder indirect injection compression ignition engine.Engine combustion, exhaust gas emissions and performance parameters were measured and compared with pure fossil diesel operation. The ASTM copper corrosion values for 20{\%} and 30{\%} pyrolysis blends were 2c, compared to 1b for fossil diesel. The kinematic viscosities of the blends at 40 C were 5–7 times higher than that of fossil diesel. Digested pyrolysis oil blends produced lower in-cylinder peak pressures than fossil diesel and waste cooking oil operation. The maximum heat release rates of the blends were approximately 8{\%} higher than with fossil diesel. The ignition delay periods of the blends were higher; pyrolysis oil blends started to combust late and once combustion started burnt quicker than fossil diesel. The total burning duration of the 20{\%} and 30{\%} blends were decreased by 12{\%} and 3{\%} compared to fossil diesel. At full engine load, the brake thermal efficiencies of the blends were decreased by about 3–7{\%} when compared to fossil diesel. The pyrolysis blends gave lower smoke levels; at full engine load, smoke level of the 20{\%} blend was 44{\%} lower than fossil diesel. In comparison to fossil diesel and at full load, thebrake specific fuel consumption (wt.) of the 30{\%} and 20{\%} blends were approximately 32{\%} and 15{\%} higher. At full engine load, the CO emission of the 20{\%} and 30{\%} blends were decreased by 39{\%} and 66{\%} with respect to the fossil diesel. Blends CO2 emissions were similar to that of fossil diesel; at full engine load, 30{\%} blend produced approximately 5{\%} higher CO2 emission than fossil diesel. The study concludes that on the basis of short term engine experiment up to 30{\%} blend of pyrolysis oil from digestate of arable crops can be used in a compression ignition engine.",
keywords = "CI engine, anaerobic digestion, intermediate pyrolysis, digestate , combustion, emission",
author = "A.K. Hossain and C. Serrano and J. Brammer and A. Omran and F. Ahmed and D.I. Smith and P.A. Davies",
note = "{\circledC} 2015, Elsevier. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ Funding: FP7/2007–2013 (grant 286244)",
year = "2016",
month = "5",
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Combustion of fuel blends containing digestate pyrolysis oil in a multi-cylinder compression ignition engine. / Hossain, A.K.; Serrano, C.; Brammer, J.; Omran, A.; Ahmed, F.; Smith, D.I.; Davies, P.A.

In: Fuel, Vol. 171, 01.05.2016, p. 18-28.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Combustion of fuel blends containing digestate pyrolysis oil in a multi-cylinder compression ignition engine

AU - Hossain, A.K.

AU - Serrano, C.

AU - Brammer, J.

AU - Omran, A.

AU - Ahmed, F.

AU - Smith, D.I.

AU - Davies, P.A.

N1 - © 2015, Elsevier. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ Funding: FP7/2007–2013 (grant 286244)

PY - 2016/5/1

Y1 - 2016/5/1

N2 - Digestate from the anaerobic digestion conversion process is widely used as a farm land fertiliser. This study proposes an alternative use as a source of energy. Dried digestate was pyrolysed and the resulting oil was blended with waste cooking oil and butanol (10, 20 and 30 vol.%). The physical and chemical properties of the pyrolysis oil blends were measured and compared with pure fossil diesel and waste cooking oil. The blends were tested in a multi-cylinder indirect injection compression ignition engine.Engine combustion, exhaust gas emissions and performance parameters were measured and compared with pure fossil diesel operation. The ASTM copper corrosion values for 20% and 30% pyrolysis blends were 2c, compared to 1b for fossil diesel. The kinematic viscosities of the blends at 40 C were 5–7 times higher than that of fossil diesel. Digested pyrolysis oil blends produced lower in-cylinder peak pressures than fossil diesel and waste cooking oil operation. The maximum heat release rates of the blends were approximately 8% higher than with fossil diesel. The ignition delay periods of the blends were higher; pyrolysis oil blends started to combust late and once combustion started burnt quicker than fossil diesel. The total burning duration of the 20% and 30% blends were decreased by 12% and 3% compared to fossil diesel. At full engine load, the brake thermal efficiencies of the blends were decreased by about 3–7% when compared to fossil diesel. The pyrolysis blends gave lower smoke levels; at full engine load, smoke level of the 20% blend was 44% lower than fossil diesel. In comparison to fossil diesel and at full load, thebrake specific fuel consumption (wt.) of the 30% and 20% blends were approximately 32% and 15% higher. At full engine load, the CO emission of the 20% and 30% blends were decreased by 39% and 66% with respect to the fossil diesel. Blends CO2 emissions were similar to that of fossil diesel; at full engine load, 30% blend produced approximately 5% higher CO2 emission than fossil diesel. The study concludes that on the basis of short term engine experiment up to 30% blend of pyrolysis oil from digestate of arable crops can be used in a compression ignition engine.

AB - Digestate from the anaerobic digestion conversion process is widely used as a farm land fertiliser. This study proposes an alternative use as a source of energy. Dried digestate was pyrolysed and the resulting oil was blended with waste cooking oil and butanol (10, 20 and 30 vol.%). The physical and chemical properties of the pyrolysis oil blends were measured and compared with pure fossil diesel and waste cooking oil. The blends were tested in a multi-cylinder indirect injection compression ignition engine.Engine combustion, exhaust gas emissions and performance parameters were measured and compared with pure fossil diesel operation. The ASTM copper corrosion values for 20% and 30% pyrolysis blends were 2c, compared to 1b for fossil diesel. The kinematic viscosities of the blends at 40 C were 5–7 times higher than that of fossil diesel. Digested pyrolysis oil blends produced lower in-cylinder peak pressures than fossil diesel and waste cooking oil operation. The maximum heat release rates of the blends were approximately 8% higher than with fossil diesel. The ignition delay periods of the blends were higher; pyrolysis oil blends started to combust late and once combustion started burnt quicker than fossil diesel. The total burning duration of the 20% and 30% blends were decreased by 12% and 3% compared to fossil diesel. At full engine load, the brake thermal efficiencies of the blends were decreased by about 3–7% when compared to fossil diesel. The pyrolysis blends gave lower smoke levels; at full engine load, smoke level of the 20% blend was 44% lower than fossil diesel. In comparison to fossil diesel and at full load, thebrake specific fuel consumption (wt.) of the 30% and 20% blends were approximately 32% and 15% higher. At full engine load, the CO emission of the 20% and 30% blends were decreased by 39% and 66% with respect to the fossil diesel. Blends CO2 emissions were similar to that of fossil diesel; at full engine load, 30% blend produced approximately 5% higher CO2 emission than fossil diesel. The study concludes that on the basis of short term engine experiment up to 30% blend of pyrolysis oil from digestate of arable crops can be used in a compression ignition engine.

KW - CI engine

KW - anaerobic digestion

KW - intermediate pyrolysis

KW - digestate

KW - combustion

KW - emission

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JO - Fuel

JF - Fuel

SN - 0016-2361

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