Applying direct error counting, we compare the accuracy and evaluate the validity of different available numerical approaches to the estimation of the bit-error rate (BER) in 40-Gb/s return-to-zero differential phase-shift-keying transmission. As a particular example, we consider a system with in-line semiconductor optical amplifiers. We demonstrate that none of the existing models has an absolute superiority over the others. We also reveal the impact of the duty cycle on the accuracy of the BER estimates through the differently introduced Q-factors. © 2007 IEEE.
- direct error counting
- numerical methods for bit-error-rate (BER) estimation
- return-to-zero differential phase-shift keying (RZ-DPSK)