Comparing community mobility reduction between first and second COVID-19 waves

Gabriela Cavalcante da Silva, Fernanda Monteiro de Almeida, Sabrina Oliveira, Elizabeth F. Wanner, Leonardo C.T. Bezerra, Ricardo H.C. Takahashi, Luciana Lima

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review



    In this paper, we conduct a mobility reduction rate comparison between the first and second COVID-19 waves in several localities from America and Europe using Google community mobility reports (CMR) data. Through multi-dimensional visualization, we are able to compare the reduction in mobility from the different lockdown periods for each locality selected, simultaneously considering multiple place categories provided in CMR. In addition, our analysis comprises a 56-day lockdown period for each locality and COVID-19 wave, which we analyze both as 56-day periods and as 14-day consecutive windows.


    We use locality-wise calibrated CMR data, which we process through seasonal-trend decomposition by LOESS (STL) to isolate trend from seasonal and noise effects. We scale trend data to draw Pareto-compliant conclusions using radar charts. For each temporal granularity considered, data for a given place category is aggregated using the area under the curve (AUC) approach.


    In general, reduction rates observed during the first wave were much higher than during the second. Alarmingly, December holiday season mobility in some of the localities reached pre-pandemic levels for some of the place categories reported. Manaus was the only locality where second wave mobility was nearly as reduced as during the first wave, likely due to the P1 variant outbreak and oxygen supply crisis.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)114-124
    JournalTransport Policy
    Early online date25 Aug 2021
    Publication statusPublished - Oct 2021


    • COVID-19
    • Social distancing
    • Google community mobility reports


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