Comparing interaction techniques for serious games through brain-computer interfaces: a user perception evaluation study

Fotis Liarokapis*, Kurt Debattista, Athanasios Vourvopoulos, Panagiotis Petridis, Alina Ene

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

This paper examines the application of commercial and non-invasive electroencephalography (EEG)-based brain-computer (BCIs) interfaces with serious games. Two different EEG-based BCI devices were used to fully control the same serious game. The first device (NeuroSky MindSet) uses only a single dry electrode and requires no calibration. The second device (Emotiv EPOC) uses 14 wet sensors requiring additional training of a classifier. User testing was performed on both devices with sixty-two participants measuring the player experience as well as key aspects of serious games, primarily learnability, satisfaction, performance and effort. Recorded feedback indicates that the current state of BCIs can be used in the future as alternative game interfaces after familiarisation and in some cases calibration. Comparative analysis showed significant differences between the two devices. The first device provides more satisfaction to the players whereas the second device is more effective in terms of adaptation and interaction with the serious game.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)391-399
Number of pages9
JournalEntertainment Computing
Volume5
Issue number4
Early online date22 Oct 2014
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2014

Keywords

  • brain-computer interfaces
  • human-machine interaction
  • serious games
  • virtual environments

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