Comparison between femtosecond laser and fusion-arc inscribed long period gratings in photonic crystal fibre

Thomas D.P. Allsop, Kyriacos Kalli, Kaiming Zhou, Graham Smith, Michael Komodromos, Kate Sugden, Mykhaylo Dubov, David J. Webb, Ian Bennion

Research output: Chapter in Book/Published conference outputConference publication


The use of high intensity femtosecond laser sources for inscribing fibre gratings has attained significant interest. The principal advantage of high-energy pulses is their ability for grating inscription in any material type without preprocessing or special core doping. In the field of fibre optical sensing LPGs written in photonic crystal fibre have a distinct advantage of low temperature sensitivity over gratings written in conventional fibre and thus minimal temperature cross-sensitivity. Previous studies have indicated that LPGs written by a point-by-point inscription scheme using a low repetition femtosecond laser exhibit post-fabrication evolution leading to temporal instabilities at room temperatures with respect to spectral location, strength and birefringence of the attenuation bands. These spectral instabilities of LPGs are studied in photonic crystal fibres (endlessly single mode microstructure fibre) to moderately high temperatures 100°C to 200°C and their performance compared to fusion-arc fabricated LPG. Initial results suggest that the fusion-arc fabricated LPG demonstrate less spectral instability for a given constant and moderate temperature, and are similar to the results obtained when inscribed in a standard single mode fibre.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationPhotonic Crystal Fibers III
EditorsKyriacos Kalli
ISBN (Print)978-0-8194-7631-9
Publication statusPublished - 6 May 2009
EventPhotonic Crystal Fibers III - Prague, Czech Republic
Duration: 22 Apr 200923 Apr 2009

Publication series

NameSPIE proceedings
ISSN (Print)0277-786X


ConferencePhotonic Crystal Fibers III
Country/TerritoryCzech Republic

Bibliographical note

Copyright 2009 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers. One print or electronic copy may be made for personal use only. Systematic reproduction and distribution, duplication of any material in this paper for a fee or for commercial purposes, or modification of the content of the paper are prohibited.


  • cavity resonators
  • crystal microstructure
  • crystal whiskers
  • fiber optic sensors
  • fibers
  • lasers
  • optical fiber fabrication
  • photonic crystals
  • pulsed laser applications
  • single mode fibers
  • ultrashort pulses
  • attenuation bands
  • femtosecond laser
  • fibre gratings
  • fusion-arc
  • high energy pulse
  • high intensity
  • long period grating
  • low temperature sensitivity
  • moderate temperature
  • moderately high temperature
  • optical sensing
  • photonic crystal fibre
  • post-fabrication
  • room temperature
  • single mode
  • single mode fibres
  • temperature cross-sensitivity
  • temporal instability


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