Concentration of mannitol and other soluble carbohydrates in the crustose lichen Rhizocarpon geographicum

Richard Armstrong

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter (peer-reviewed)

Abstract

In symbiotic lichens which have Trebouxia as the algal partner, photosynthesis by the algae results in the production of the soluble carbohydrate ribitol which is then transported to the fungus where it is converted to arabitol and mannitol. Within the fungus, arabitol may act as a short-term carbohydrate reserve while mannitol may have a more protective function and be important in stress resistance. The concentrations of ribitol, arabitol, and mannitol were measured, using gas chromatography, in the central areolae and marginal hypothallus of the crustose lichen Rhizocarpon geographicum (L.) DC. growing on slate rocks in north Wales, UK. The concentrations of all three soluble carbohydrates were greater in the central areolae than in the marginal prothallus. In addition, the ratio of mannitol in the prothallus to that in the areolae was least in July. The concentration of an individual carbohydrate in the prothallus was correlated primarily with the concentrations of the other carbohydrates in the prothallus and not to their concentrations in the areolae. Low concentration of ribitol, arabitol, and mannitol in the marginal prothallus compared with the central areolae suggests either a lower demand for carbohydrate by the prothallus or limited transport from areolae to prothallus and may explain the low growth rates of this species. In addition, soluble carbohydrates appear to be partitioned differently through the year with an increase in mannitol compared with arabitol in more stressful periods.
LanguageEnglish
Title of host publicationMannitol
Subtitle of host publicationchemistry, uses and potential side effects
EditorsPaolo Fubini
Place of PublicationHauppage, NY (US)
PublisherNova science
ISBN (Electronic)978-1-62808-763-5
ISBN (Print)978-1-62808-762-8
Publication statusPublished - 2013

Publication series

NamePharmacology - research, safety testing and regulation: biotechnology in agriculture, industry and medicine
PublisherNova

Fingerprint

Rhizocarpon
mannitol
lichens
carbohydrates
algae
Trebouxia
fungi
Wales
stress tolerance
gas chromatography
rocks
arabitol
photosynthesis

Keywords

  • Lichen
  • Symbiosis
  • Rhizocarpon geographicum
  • Mannitol
  • Prothallus
  • Areolae
  • Soluble carbohydrate
  • Polyol

Cite this

Armstrong, R. (2013). Concentration of mannitol and other soluble carbohydrates in the crustose lichen Rhizocarpon geographicum. In P. Fubini (Ed.), Mannitol: chemistry, uses and potential side effects (Pharmacology - research, safety testing and regulation: biotechnology in agriculture, industry and medicine). Hauppage, NY (US): Nova science.
Armstrong, Richard. / Concentration of mannitol and other soluble carbohydrates in the crustose lichen Rhizocarpon geographicum. Mannitol: chemistry, uses and potential side effects. editor / Paolo Fubini. Hauppage, NY (US) : Nova science, 2013. (Pharmacology - research, safety testing and regulation: biotechnology in agriculture, industry and medicine).
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Armstrong, R 2013, Concentration of mannitol and other soluble carbohydrates in the crustose lichen Rhizocarpon geographicum. in P Fubini (ed.), Mannitol: chemistry, uses and potential side effects. Pharmacology - research, safety testing and regulation: biotechnology in agriculture, industry and medicine, Nova science, Hauppage, NY (US).

Concentration of mannitol and other soluble carbohydrates in the crustose lichen Rhizocarpon geographicum. / Armstrong, Richard.

Mannitol: chemistry, uses and potential side effects. ed. / Paolo Fubini. Hauppage, NY (US) : Nova science, 2013. (Pharmacology - research, safety testing and regulation: biotechnology in agriculture, industry and medicine).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter (peer-reviewed)

TY - CHAP

T1 - Concentration of mannitol and other soluble carbohydrates in the crustose lichen Rhizocarpon geographicum

AU - Armstrong, Richard

PY - 2013

Y1 - 2013

N2 - In symbiotic lichens which have Trebouxia as the algal partner, photosynthesis by the algae results in the production of the soluble carbohydrate ribitol which is then transported to the fungus where it is converted to arabitol and mannitol. Within the fungus, arabitol may act as a short-term carbohydrate reserve while mannitol may have a more protective function and be important in stress resistance. The concentrations of ribitol, arabitol, and mannitol were measured, using gas chromatography, in the central areolae and marginal hypothallus of the crustose lichen Rhizocarpon geographicum (L.) DC. growing on slate rocks in north Wales, UK. The concentrations of all three soluble carbohydrates were greater in the central areolae than in the marginal prothallus. In addition, the ratio of mannitol in the prothallus to that in the areolae was least in July. The concentration of an individual carbohydrate in the prothallus was correlated primarily with the concentrations of the other carbohydrates in the prothallus and not to their concentrations in the areolae. Low concentration of ribitol, arabitol, and mannitol in the marginal prothallus compared with the central areolae suggests either a lower demand for carbohydrate by the prothallus or limited transport from areolae to prothallus and may explain the low growth rates of this species. In addition, soluble carbohydrates appear to be partitioned differently through the year with an increase in mannitol compared with arabitol in more stressful periods.

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KW - Symbiosis

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KW - Mannitol

KW - Prothallus

KW - Areolae

KW - Soluble carbohydrate

KW - Polyol

UR - https://www.novapublishers.com/catalog/product_info.php?products_id=40145&osCsid=14973aacc22fc55c0c2fcac3d8d871ed

M3 - Chapter (peer-reviewed)

SN - 978-1-62808-762-8

T3 - Pharmacology - research, safety testing and regulation: biotechnology in agriculture, industry and medicine

BT - Mannitol

A2 - Fubini, Paolo

PB - Nova science

CY - Hauppage, NY (US)

ER -

Armstrong R. Concentration of mannitol and other soluble carbohydrates in the crustose lichen Rhizocarpon geographicum. In Fubini P, editor, Mannitol: chemistry, uses and potential side effects. Hauppage, NY (US): Nova science. 2013. (Pharmacology - research, safety testing and regulation: biotechnology in agriculture, industry and medicine).