R. Krishnamurthy*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingEntry for encyclopedia/dictionary


This article focuses on the use of electronic concordances created from large language corpora, as one of the new powerful analytical tools available to the modern lexicographer. The KWIC format, automatic re-sorting, variable context, and other features make electronic concordances easy to use and ideal for highlighting linguistic features and selecting examples. Therefore, concordances have also become popular for language learning and teaching, as they can also be easily edited for different types of classroom exercise. Concordances were mainly used in EFL lexicography in the past, but as multilingual corpora and parallel concordancers have now been developed, they are increasingly being used for bilingual dictionaries.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationEncyclopedia of Language & Linguistics
Number of pages4
ISBN (Print)9780080448541
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2006



  • Bible
  • Colligation
  • Collocation
  • Computer
  • Context
  • Corpus
  • Data-Driven Learning
  • Gapped Concordances
  • Keyword
  • KWIC
  • Left Sorting
  • Node
  • Parallel Concordances
  • Pattern
  • Right Sorting
  • Shakespeare
  • Sorting

Cite this

Krishnamurthy, R. (2006). Concordances. In Encyclopedia of Language & Linguistics (2nd ed., pp. 1-4). Elsevier.