Contradiction in universal and particular reasoning

Maria T. Medaglia, Franca Tecchio, Stefano Seri, Giorgio Di Lorenzo, Paolo M. Rossini, Camillo Porcaro

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

A wide range of essential reasoning tasks rely on contradiction identification, a cornerstone of human rationality, communication and debate founded on the inversion of the logical operators "Every" and "Some." A high-density electroencephalographic (EEG) study was performed in 11 normal young adults. The cerebral network involved in the identification of contradiction included the orbito-frontal and anterior-cingulate cortices and the temporo-polar cortices. The event-related dynamic of this network showed an early negative deflection lasting 500 ms after sentence presentation. This was followed by a positive deflection lasting 1.5 s, which was different for the two logical operators. A lesser degree of network activation (either in neuron number or their level of phase locking or both) occurred while processing statements with "Some," suggesting that this was a relatively simpler scenario with one example to be figured out, instead of the many examples or the absence of a counterexample searched for while processing statements with "Every." A self-generated reward system seemed to resonate the recruited circuitry when the contradictory task is successfully completed.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4187-4197
Number of pages11
JournalHuman Brain Mapping
Volume30
Issue number12
Early online date24 Jun 2009
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2009

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Gyrus Cinguli
Reward
Young Adult
Communication
Neurons

Keywords

  • adult
  • algorithms
  • brain
  • brain mapping
  • cognition
  • electroencephalography
  • female
  • humans
  • intelligence
  • male
  • neural pathways
  • reward
  • computer-assisted signal processing
  • contradictory reasoning
  • independent component analysis
  • logical operators

Cite this

Medaglia, M. T., Tecchio, F., Seri, S., Di Lorenzo, G., Rossini, P. M., & Porcaro, C. (2009). Contradiction in universal and particular reasoning. Human Brain Mapping, 30(12), 4187-4197. https://doi.org/10.1002/hbm.20838
Medaglia, Maria T. ; Tecchio, Franca ; Seri, Stefano ; Di Lorenzo, Giorgio ; Rossini, Paolo M. ; Porcaro, Camillo. / Contradiction in universal and particular reasoning. In: Human Brain Mapping. 2009 ; Vol. 30, No. 12. pp. 4187-4197.
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Medaglia, MT, Tecchio, F, Seri, S, Di Lorenzo, G, Rossini, PM & Porcaro, C 2009, 'Contradiction in universal and particular reasoning', Human Brain Mapping, vol. 30, no. 12, pp. 4187-4197. https://doi.org/10.1002/hbm.20838

Contradiction in universal and particular reasoning. / Medaglia, Maria T.; Tecchio, Franca; Seri, Stefano; Di Lorenzo, Giorgio; Rossini, Paolo M.; Porcaro, Camillo.

In: Human Brain Mapping, Vol. 30, No. 12, 12.2009, p. 4187-4197.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Medaglia MT, Tecchio F, Seri S, Di Lorenzo G, Rossini PM, Porcaro C. Contradiction in universal and particular reasoning. Human Brain Mapping. 2009 Dec;30(12):4187-4197. https://doi.org/10.1002/hbm.20838