There is an emerging application which uses a mixture of batteries within an energy storage system. These hybrid battery solutions may contain different battery types. A DC-side cascaded boost converters along with a module based distributed power sharing strategy has been proposed to cope with variations in battery parameters such as, state-of-charge and/or capacity. This power sharing strategy distributes the total power among the different battery modules according to these battery parameters. Each module controller consists of an outer voltage loop with an inner current loop where the desired control reference for each control loop needs to be dynamically varied according to battery parameters to undertake this sharing. As a result, the designed control bandwidth or stability margin of each module control loop may vary in a wide range which can cause a stability problem within the cascaded converter. This paper reports such a unique issue and thoroughly investigates the stability of the modular converter under the distributed sharing scheme. The paper shows that a cascaded PI control loop approach cannot guarantee the system stability throughout the operating conditions. A detailed analysis of the stability issue and the limitations of the conventional approach are highlighted. Finally in-depth experimental results are presented to prove the stability issue using a modular hybrid battery energy storage system prototype under various operating conditions.
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Funding: EPSRC (EP/1008764/1 and EP/13764)
- cascaded DC-DC converters
- hybrid battery energy storage systems
- multiple battery types