This paper examines how stock returns and volatility in the Canadian stock market have been affected by both the COVID-19 pandemic and the associated vaccination program. The empirical analysis is based on the generalized autoregressive conditionally heteroskedastic model which explicitly allows the inclusion of information on the COVID-19 pandemic and the vaccination program. The analysis uses daily Canadian equity returns and volatility, spanning the period 27 January 2020, to 31 August 2021. The findings provide evidence that the COVID-19 pandemic exerts a significant negative impact on the mean of Canadian stock returns and a positive impact on their volatility. In contrast, the findings provide novel evidence that the vaccination program in Canada has reversed these detrimental effects.
|Number of pages||14|
|Early online date||9 Feb 2022|
|Publication status||Published - 9 Feb 2022|
- GARCH-X model
- Stock market returns
- vaccination program
- volatility returns