Creativity and security as a cultural recipe for entrepreneurship

Tomasz Mickiewicz*, Anneli Kaasa

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


We posit that societal cultural values of creativity and security are associated with the likelihood that a person will engage in a business start-up. Creativity supports the opportunity identification and security the opportunity exploitation aspects of entrepreneurship. In contrast, both emphasis on performance and acceptance of risk-taking may not play the role that is typically assumed. To verify our hypotheses we construct a multilevel dataset, combining Global Entrepreneurship Monitor individual-level data with country-level data from the World Values Survey. We use a multilevel logit model to address the hierarchical structure of our data. We found that odds of start-up engagement are higher if people in a society value security, yet also appreciate thinking up new ideas and being creative. Our results support McCloskey’s distinction between aristocratic and bourgeois values, and John and Storr’s proposition that different cultural traits support different aspects of entrepreneurship.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)119-137
Number of pages19
JournalJournal of Institutional Economics
Issue numberSpecial Issue 1
Early online date24 Nov 2020
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2022

Bibliographical note

(c) 2020, Millenium Economics Ltd. The final publication is available via Cambridge Journals Online at


  • Entrepreneurship
  • Values
  • Culture
  • Creativity
  • Security
  • Global Entrepreneurship Monitor


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