Cross-cultural confirmatory factor analysis of the CES-D in Spanish and Mexican dementia caregivers

Andrés Losada, M. de los Ángeles Villareal, Roberto Nuevo, María Márquez-González, Bertha C. Salazar, Rosa Romero-Moreno, Ana L. Carrillo, Virginia Fernáñdez-Fernández

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D) is the most frequently used scale for measuring depressive symptomatology in caregiving research. The aim of this study is to test its construct structure and measurement equivalence between caregivers from two Spanish-speaking countries. Face-to-face interviews were carried out with 595 female dementia caregivers from Madrid, Spain, and from Coahuila, Mexico. The structure of the CES-D was analyzed using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis (EFA and CFA, respectively). Measurement invariance across samples was analyzed comparing a baseline model with a more restrictive model. Significant differences between means were found for 7 items. The results of the EFA clearly supported a four-factor solution. The CFA for the whole sample with the four factors revealed high and statistically significant loading coefficients for all items (except item number 4). When equality constraints were imposed to test for the invariance between countries, the change in chi-square was significant, indicating that complete invariance could not be assumed. Significant between-countries differences were found for three of the four latent factor mean scores. Although the results provide general support for the original four-factor structure, caution should be exercised on reporting comparisons of depression scores between Spanish-speaking countries.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)783-792
Number of pages10
JournalSpanish journal of psychology
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2012


  • Spain
  • psychometrics
  • Mexico
  • language
  • caregivers
  • cross-cultural comparison
  • dementia
  • depression
  • statistical factor analysis


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