Decreased NADPH oxidase expression and antioxidant activity in cachectic skeletal muscle

Michael Tisdale

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background - Cancer cachexia is the progressive loss of skeletal muscle protein that contributes significantly to cancer morbidity and mortality. Evidence of antioxidant attenuation and the presence of oxidised proteins in patients with cancer cachexia indicate a role for oxidative stress. The level of oxidative stress in tissues is determined by an imbalance between reactive oxygen species production and antioxidant activity. This study aimed to investigate the superoxide generating NADPH oxidase (NOX) enzyme and antioxidant enzyme systems in murine adenocarcinoma tumour-bearing cachectic mice.
Methods - Superoxide levels, mRNA levels of NOX enzyme subunits and the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidise (GPx) and catalase was measured in the skeletal muscle of mice with cancer and cancer cachexia. Protein expression levels of NOX enzyme subunits and antioxidant enzyme activity was also measured in the same muscle samples.
Results - Superoxide levels increased 1.4-fold in the muscle of mice with cancer cachexia, and this was associated with a decrease in mRNA of NOX enzyme subunits, NOX2, p40phox and p67phox along with the antioxidant enzymes SOD1, SOD2 and GPx. Cancer cachexia was also associated with a 1.3-fold decrease in SOD1 and 2.0-fold decrease in GPx enzyme activity.
Conclusion - Despite increased superoxide levels in cachectic skeletal muscle, NOX enzyme subunits, NOX2, p40phox and p67phox, were downregulated along with the expression and activity of the antioxidant enzymes. Therefore, the increased superoxide levels in cachectic skeletal muscle may be attributed to the reduction in the activity of endogenous antioxidant enzymes.
LanguageEnglish
Article number PMC3177039
Pages 181–188
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Volume2
Issue number3
Early online date11 Aug 2011
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2011

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NADPH Oxidase
Skeletal Muscle
Antioxidants
Enzymes
Cachexia
Superoxides
Neoplasms
Glutathione
Oxidative Stress
Muscles
Messenger RNA
Muscle Proteins
Catalase
Superoxide Dismutase
Reactive Oxygen Species
Proteins
Adenocarcinoma
Down-Regulation

Bibliographical note

© The Author(s) 2011. This article is published with open access at Springerlink.com

Keywords

  • cachexia
  • cancer cachexia
  • NADPH oxidase
  • SOD
  • antioxidant
  • O2
  • ROS

Cite this

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title = "Decreased NADPH oxidase expression and antioxidant activity in cachectic skeletal muscle",
abstract = "Background - Cancer cachexia is the progressive loss of skeletal muscle protein that contributes significantly to cancer morbidity and mortality. Evidence of antioxidant attenuation and the presence of oxidised proteins in patients with cancer cachexia indicate a role for oxidative stress. The level of oxidative stress in tissues is determined by an imbalance between reactive oxygen species production and antioxidant activity. This study aimed to investigate the superoxide generating NADPH oxidase (NOX) enzyme and antioxidant enzyme systems in murine adenocarcinoma tumour-bearing cachectic mice. Methods - Superoxide levels, mRNA levels of NOX enzyme subunits and the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidise (GPx) and catalase was measured in the skeletal muscle of mice with cancer and cancer cachexia. Protein expression levels of NOX enzyme subunits and antioxidant enzyme activity was also measured in the same muscle samples. Results - Superoxide levels increased 1.4-fold in the muscle of mice with cancer cachexia, and this was associated with a decrease in mRNA of NOX enzyme subunits, NOX2, p40phox and p67phox along with the antioxidant enzymes SOD1, SOD2 and GPx. Cancer cachexia was also associated with a 1.3-fold decrease in SOD1 and 2.0-fold decrease in GPx enzyme activity. Conclusion - Despite increased superoxide levels in cachectic skeletal muscle, NOX enzyme subunits, NOX2, p40phox and p67phox, were downregulated along with the expression and activity of the antioxidant enzymes. Therefore, the increased superoxide levels in cachectic skeletal muscle may be attributed to the reduction in the activity of endogenous antioxidant enzymes.",
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Decreased NADPH oxidase expression and antioxidant activity in cachectic skeletal muscle. / Tisdale, Michael.

In: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle, Vol. 2, No. 3, PMC3177039, 09.2011, p. 181–188.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Decreased NADPH oxidase expression and antioxidant activity in cachectic skeletal muscle

AU - Tisdale, Michael

N1 - © The Author(s) 2011. This article is published with open access at Springerlink.com

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Y1 - 2011/9

N2 - Background - Cancer cachexia is the progressive loss of skeletal muscle protein that contributes significantly to cancer morbidity and mortality. Evidence of antioxidant attenuation and the presence of oxidised proteins in patients with cancer cachexia indicate a role for oxidative stress. The level of oxidative stress in tissues is determined by an imbalance between reactive oxygen species production and antioxidant activity. This study aimed to investigate the superoxide generating NADPH oxidase (NOX) enzyme and antioxidant enzyme systems in murine adenocarcinoma tumour-bearing cachectic mice. Methods - Superoxide levels, mRNA levels of NOX enzyme subunits and the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidise (GPx) and catalase was measured in the skeletal muscle of mice with cancer and cancer cachexia. Protein expression levels of NOX enzyme subunits and antioxidant enzyme activity was also measured in the same muscle samples. Results - Superoxide levels increased 1.4-fold in the muscle of mice with cancer cachexia, and this was associated with a decrease in mRNA of NOX enzyme subunits, NOX2, p40phox and p67phox along with the antioxidant enzymes SOD1, SOD2 and GPx. Cancer cachexia was also associated with a 1.3-fold decrease in SOD1 and 2.0-fold decrease in GPx enzyme activity. Conclusion - Despite increased superoxide levels in cachectic skeletal muscle, NOX enzyme subunits, NOX2, p40phox and p67phox, were downregulated along with the expression and activity of the antioxidant enzymes. Therefore, the increased superoxide levels in cachectic skeletal muscle may be attributed to the reduction in the activity of endogenous antioxidant enzymes.

AB - Background - Cancer cachexia is the progressive loss of skeletal muscle protein that contributes significantly to cancer morbidity and mortality. Evidence of antioxidant attenuation and the presence of oxidised proteins in patients with cancer cachexia indicate a role for oxidative stress. The level of oxidative stress in tissues is determined by an imbalance between reactive oxygen species production and antioxidant activity. This study aimed to investigate the superoxide generating NADPH oxidase (NOX) enzyme and antioxidant enzyme systems in murine adenocarcinoma tumour-bearing cachectic mice. Methods - Superoxide levels, mRNA levels of NOX enzyme subunits and the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidise (GPx) and catalase was measured in the skeletal muscle of mice with cancer and cancer cachexia. Protein expression levels of NOX enzyme subunits and antioxidant enzyme activity was also measured in the same muscle samples. Results - Superoxide levels increased 1.4-fold in the muscle of mice with cancer cachexia, and this was associated with a decrease in mRNA of NOX enzyme subunits, NOX2, p40phox and p67phox along with the antioxidant enzymes SOD1, SOD2 and GPx. Cancer cachexia was also associated with a 1.3-fold decrease in SOD1 and 2.0-fold decrease in GPx enzyme activity. Conclusion - Despite increased superoxide levels in cachectic skeletal muscle, NOX enzyme subunits, NOX2, p40phox and p67phox, were downregulated along with the expression and activity of the antioxidant enzymes. Therefore, the increased superoxide levels in cachectic skeletal muscle may be attributed to the reduction in the activity of endogenous antioxidant enzymes.

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