Desert palm date seeds as a biodiesel feedstock: Extraction, characterization, and engine testing

Mohammed Kamil*, Khalid Ramadan, Abdul Ghani Olabi, Chaouki Ghenai, Abrar Inayat, Mugdad H. Rajab

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

The development of alternative fuels is increasingly important in order to maintain ongoing global economic and technological progress in the face of fossil fuel depletion and increasing environmental damage. Desert palm date seeds have clear potential as feedstock for biodiesel production given their high oil content and availability as food waste that requires no further cultivation. In this study we investigated the optimum production processes and conditions for date seed oil biodiesel, including characterizing the intermediate product and correcting its composition to meet international fuel standards. Four biodiesel blends were prepared (B5, B10, B15, and B20) and tested in a compression ignition engine at engine speeds from 1600 to 3600 rpm (200 rpm increments) and three engine loads (50%, 75%, and 100%). The highest oil yield and biodiesel conversion achieved were 10.74 wt.% and 92%, respectively. The biodiesel properties conformed well with the standards; the values for brake power, brake thermal efficiency, and brake specific fuel consumption were comparable with petrol diesel, though the latter was slightly superior. All blends produced lower levels of CO2, CO, and HC but higher levels of NOx emissions. These results demonstrate the fundamental suitability of date seeds as biodiesel feedstock, deserving of further research.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberen12163147
JournalEnergies
Volume12
Issue number16
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 16 Aug 2019

Fingerprint

Biodiesel
Date
Feedstocks
Seed
Engine
Engines
Testing
Brakes
Ignition
Depletion
Increment
Oilseeds
Compression
Availability
Damage
Alternative fuels
Economics
Fossil fuels
Fuel consumption
Alternatives

Bibliographical note

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

Keywords

  • Biodiesel
  • Brake power
  • Brake specific fuel consumption
  • Date seeds
  • Desert palm tree
  • Engine emissions
  • Transesterification

Cite this

Kamil, M., Ramadan, K., Olabi, A. G., Ghenai, C., Inayat, A., & Rajab, M. H. (2019). Desert palm date seeds as a biodiesel feedstock: Extraction, characterization, and engine testing. Energies, 12(16), [en12163147]. https://doi.org/10.3390/en12163147
Kamil, Mohammed ; Ramadan, Khalid ; Olabi, Abdul Ghani ; Ghenai, Chaouki ; Inayat, Abrar ; Rajab, Mugdad H. / Desert palm date seeds as a biodiesel feedstock : Extraction, characterization, and engine testing. In: Energies. 2019 ; Vol. 12, No. 16.
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Kamil, M, Ramadan, K, Olabi, AG, Ghenai, C, Inayat, A & Rajab, MH 2019, 'Desert palm date seeds as a biodiesel feedstock: Extraction, characterization, and engine testing', Energies, vol. 12, no. 16, en12163147. https://doi.org/10.3390/en12163147

Desert palm date seeds as a biodiesel feedstock : Extraction, characterization, and engine testing. / Kamil, Mohammed; Ramadan, Khalid; Olabi, Abdul Ghani; Ghenai, Chaouki; Inayat, Abrar; Rajab, Mugdad H.

In: Energies, Vol. 12, No. 16, en12163147, 16.08.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

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AU - Kamil, Mohammed

AU - Ramadan, Khalid

AU - Olabi, Abdul Ghani

AU - Ghenai, Chaouki

AU - Inayat, Abrar

AU - Rajab, Mugdad H.

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PY - 2019/8/16

Y1 - 2019/8/16

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AB - The development of alternative fuels is increasingly important in order to maintain ongoing global economic and technological progress in the face of fossil fuel depletion and increasing environmental damage. Desert palm date seeds have clear potential as feedstock for biodiesel production given their high oil content and availability as food waste that requires no further cultivation. In this study we investigated the optimum production processes and conditions for date seed oil biodiesel, including characterizing the intermediate product and correcting its composition to meet international fuel standards. Four biodiesel blends were prepared (B5, B10, B15, and B20) and tested in a compression ignition engine at engine speeds from 1600 to 3600 rpm (200 rpm increments) and three engine loads (50%, 75%, and 100%). The highest oil yield and biodiesel conversion achieved were 10.74 wt.% and 92%, respectively. The biodiesel properties conformed well with the standards; the values for brake power, brake thermal efficiency, and brake specific fuel consumption were comparable with petrol diesel, though the latter was slightly superior. All blends produced lower levels of CO2, CO, and HC but higher levels of NOx emissions. These results demonstrate the fundamental suitability of date seeds as biodiesel feedstock, deserving of further research.

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Kamil M, Ramadan K, Olabi AG, Ghenai C, Inayat A, Rajab MH. Desert palm date seeds as a biodiesel feedstock: Extraction, characterization, and engine testing. Energies. 2019 Aug 16;12(16). en12163147. https://doi.org/10.3390/en12163147