Development of a novel polymer-based carrier for deformable liposomes for the controlled dermal delivery of naringenin

Mandeep Marwah, Raj K. S. Badhan, Deborah Lowry*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In recent years, the incidence of skin cancer has increased worldwide, presenting a significant burden on healthcare services. Chemotherapy intervention is often not appropriate for all patients due to localized adverse effects on skin physiology. The aim of this study was, therefore, to consider the development of a novel phytochemical-based deformable liposomal formulation suspended in an aqueous gel for the controlled-release of naringenin. Naringenin is an antioxidant, free radical scavenger, anti-inflammatory agent, and immune system modulator thus may be potentially useful as a pharmacological anti-cancer agent. Formulated liposomes incorporating an increasing loading of Tween 20 (from 0% w/w to 10% w/w) demonstrated a significant decrease in deformability index (DI) (80.71 ± 2.02–59.17 ± 4.42 %), indicating an increase in elasticity. The release of naringenin over 24 h was directly affected by Tween-20 concentration, decreasing from 100.72%±4.98% to 79.53%±3.68% for 0% and 2% w/w Tween 20, respectively. Further, the incorporation of deformable liposomes into hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC) and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) gels resulting in a further retardation of naringenin release, 23.21%±1.17% and 19.83%±1.50%, respectively, over 24 h. Incubation of 1,1′-dioctadecyl-3,3,3′,3′-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate-loaded liposomes with human dermal fibroblast (HDF) and keratinocyte cells demonstrated intracellular accumulation within 2 h, confirming deformable liposomes may be beneficial in improving drug penetration across dermal cells and would be valuable in emerging controlled-release formulations.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Liposome Research
Early online date23 Aug 2021
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 23 Aug 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding: This work was supported by the Medical Research Council (MRC) MR/K017721/1.


  • Skin cancer
  • deformable liposomes
  • dermal release
  • controlled release
  • elastic liposomes
  • liposomal gel


Dive into the research topics of 'Development of a novel polymer-based carrier for deformable liposomes for the controlled dermal delivery of naringenin'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this