Development of a questionnaire to assess the relative subjective benefits of presbyopia correction

Phillip Buckhurst, James S Wolffsohn, Navneet Gupta, Shehzad A. Naroo, Leon N. Davies, Sunil Shah

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


To develop a standardized questionnaire of near visual function and satisfaction to complement visual function evaluations of presbyopic corrections.
Eye Clinic, School of Life and Health Sciences, Aston University, Midland Eye Institute and Solihull Hospital, Birmingham, United Kingdom.
Questionnaire development.
A preliminary 26-item questionnaire of previously used near visual function items was completed by patients with monofocal intraocular lenses (IOLs), multifocal IOLs, accommodating IOLs, multifocal contact lenses, or varifocal spectacles. Rasch analysis was used for item reduction, after which internal and test–retest reliabilities were determined. Construct validity was determined by correlating the resulting Near Activity Visual Questionnaire (NAVQ) scores with near visual acuity and critical print size (CPS), which was measured using the Minnesota Low Vision Reading Test chart. Discrimination ability was assessed through receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis.
One hundred fifty patients completed the questionnaire. Item reduction resulted in a 10-item NAVQ with excellent separation (2.92), internal consistency (Cronbach a = 0.95), and test–retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.72). Correlations of questionnaire scores with near visual acuity (r = 0.32) and CPS (r = 0.27) provided evidence of validity, and discrimination ability was excellent (area under ROC curve = 0.91).
Results show the NAVQ is a reliable, valid instrument that can be incorporated into the evaluation of presbyopic corrections.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)74-79
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
Issue number1
Early online date10 Nov 2011
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2012


  • adult
  • aged
  • elderly
  • female
  • humans
  • intraocular lens implantation
  • intraocular lenses
  • male
  • middle aged
  • patient satisfaction
  • presbyopia
  • questionnaires
  • ROC curve
  • reproducibility of results
  • visual acuity


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