Development of an enantiomer selective microsampling assay for the quantification of ketorolac suitable for paediatric pharmacokinetic studies

Baba S. Mohammed, Thomas Engelhardt, Gary A. Cameron, Ahmed F. Hawwa, Peter J. Helms, James S. McLay

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: Ketorolac, a potent nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug used for pain control in children, exists as a racemate of inactive R (+) and active S (-) enantiomers. Aim: To develop a microsampling assay for the enantioselective analysis of ketorolac in children. Methods: Ketorolac enantiomers were extracted from 50 µl of plasma by liquid–liquid extraction and separated on a ChiralPak AD-RH. Detection was by a TSQ quantum triple quadrupole mass spectrometer with an electrospray ionisation source operating in a positive ion mode. Five children (age 13.8 (1.6) years, weight 52.7 (7.2) kg), were administered intravenous ketorolac 0.5 mg/kg (maximum 10 mg) and blood samples were taken at 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 12 h post administration. CL, VD and t1/2 were calculated based on non-compartmental methods. Results: The standard curves for R (+) and S (-) ketorolac were linear in the range 0–2000 ng/ml. The LLOQs of the method were 0.15 ng on column and 0.31 ng on column for R (+) and S (-) ketorolac, respectively. The median (range) VD and CL of R (+) and S (-) ketorolac were 0.12 l/kg (0.07–0.17), 0.017 l/h/kg (0.12–0.29) and 0.17 (0.09–0.31) l/kg, 0.049 (0.02–0.1) l/h/kg, p = 0.043), respectively. The median (range) elimination half-life (t1/2) of the R (+) and S (-) ketorolac was 5.0 h (2.5–5.8) and 3.1 h (1.8–4.4), p = 0.043), respectively. Conclusion: The development of a simple, rapid and reliable ketorolac assay suitable for paediatric PK studies is reported. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)377-386
Number of pages10
JournalBiopharmaceutics and Drug Disposition
Volume34
Issue number7
Early online date14 Aug 2013
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 31 Oct 2013

Bibliographical note

Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Keywords

  • enantioselective
  • ketorolac
  • intravenous
  • pharmacokinetics
  • children
  • volume of distribution
  • clearance
  • half-life

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