Digital readiness in 3D bioprinting: software, governance and hospitals' proto-clinical interfaces

Edison Bicudo*, Alex Faulkner, Phoebe Li

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Aim: To understand the process through which some hospitals have become ready to assimilate the digital technologies required for 3D bioprinting. By enhancing their digital readiness, hospitals will be able to develop the current proto-clinical potentialities of bioprinting. Materials & methods: We conducted interviews with bioprinting researchers, entrepreneurs and regulators in three countries (United Kingdom, Italy and Brazil). We analyzed bioprinting papers in which hospital-based researchers participated. We also analyzed the international bioprinting market. Result s: Digital readiness is more advanced in some hospitals and countries, which have noticed the strategic relevance of bioprinting. Furthermore, it is strengthened by the reformulation of the relations between hospitals and other institutions, a phenomenon that is here interpreted with the concept of interfaces.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)237-252
Number of pages16
JournalRegenerative medicine
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 24 Mar 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work is supported by the Leverhulme Trust under the grant number 68387. The authors have no other relevant affiliations or financial involvement with any organization or entity with a financial interest in or financial conflict with the subject matter or materials discussed in the manuscript apart from those disclosed. The authors declare that they do not have any conflicts of interest. No writing assistance was utilized in the production of this manuscript.


  • bioprinting
  • digital readiness
  • institutional interfaces
  • proto-clinical features
  • software


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