Bladder cancer is among the most common cancers worldwide (4th in men). It is responsible for high patient morbidity and displays rapid recurrence and progression. Lack of sensitivity of gold standard techniques (white light cystoscopy, voided urine cytology) means many early treatable cases are missed. The result is a large number of advanced cases of bladder cancer which require extensive treatment and monitoring. For this reason, bladder cancer is the single most expensive cancer to treat on a per patient basis. In recent years, autofluorescence spectroscopy has begun to shed light into disease research. Of particular interest in cancer research are the fluorescent metabolic cofactors NADH and FAD. Early in tumour development, cancer cells often undergo a metabolic shift (the Warburg effect) resulting in increased NADH. The ratio of NADH to FAD ("redox ratio") can therefore be used as an indicator of the metabolic status of cells. Redox ratio measurements have been used to differentiate between healthy and cancer breast cells and to monitor cellular responses to therapies. Here, we have demonstrated, using healthy and bladder cancer cell lines, a statistically significant difference in the redox ratio of bladder cancer cells, indicative of a metabolic shift. To do this we customised a standard flow cytometer to excite and record fluorescence specifically from NADH and FAD, along with a method for automatically calculating the redox ratio of individual cells within large populations. These results could inform the design of novel probes and screening systems for the early detection of bladder cancer.
|Title of host publication||Photonic therapeutics and diagnostics XI|
|Editors||Bernard Choi, Nikiforos Kollias, Haishan Zeng, et al|
|Number of pages||6|
|Publication status||Published - 26 Feb 2015|
|Event||Photonic Therapeutics and Diagnostics XI - San Francisco, United States|
Duration: 7 Feb 2015 → 8 Feb 2015
|Name||Progress in biomedical optics and imaging|
|Conference||Photonic Therapeutics and Diagnostics XI|
|Period||7/02/15 → 8/02/15|
Bibliographical noteS. Palmer ; K. Litvinova ; E. U. Rafailov and G. Nabi, "Discrimination of healthy and cancer cells of the bladder by metabolic state, based on autofluorescence", Proc. SPIE 9303, Photonic Therapeutics and Diagnostics XI, 93030T (February 26, 2015)
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Funding: EU FP7 project ABLADE (Advanced Bladder cancer Diagnosis and Therapy) with further contribution from NHS and EPSRC.
- bladder cancer
- Redox ratio