The CGRP1 receptor exists as a heterodimeric complex between a single-pass transmembrane accessory protein (RAMP1) and a family B G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) called the calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR). This study investigated the structural motifs found in the intracellular loops (ICLs) of this receptor. Molecular modeling was used to predict active and inactive conformations of each ICL. Conserved residues were altered to alanine by site-directed mutagenesis. cAMP accumulation, cell-surface expression, agonist affinity, and CGRP-stimulated receptor internalization were characterized. Within ICL1, L147 and particularly R151 were important for coupling to Gs. R151 may interact directly with the G-protein, accessing it following conformational changes involving ICL2 and ICL3. At the proximal end of ICL3, I290 and L294, probably lying on the same face of an α helix, formed a G-protein coupling motif. The largest effects on coupling were observed with I290A; additionally, it reduced CGRP affinity and impaired internalization. 1290 may interact with TM6 to stabilize the conformation of ICL3, but it could also interact directly with Gs. R314, at the distal end of ICL3, impaired G-protein coupling and to a lesser extent reduced CGRP affinity; it may stabilize the TM6-ICL3 junction by interacting with the polar headgroups of membrane phospholipids. Y215 and L214 in ICL2 are required for cell-surface expression; they form a microdomain with H216 which has the same function. This study reveals similarities between the activation of CLR and other GPCRs in the role of TM6 and ICL3 but shows that other conserved motifs differ in their function. © 2006 American Chemical Society.
- receptor activity modifying protein 1
- heterodimeric complex
- single-pass transmembrane accessory protein
- B G-protein-coupled receptor
- calcitonin receptor-like receptor
- structural motifs
- intracellular loops